Eccentric contractions increase the phosphorylation of tuberous sclerosis complex-2 (TSC2) and alter the targeting of TSC2 and the mechanistic target of rapamycin to the lysosome
Article first published online: 28 JUN 2013
© 2013 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2013 The Physiological Society
The Journal of Physiology
Volume 591, Issue 18, pages 4611–4620, September 2013
How to Cite
Jacobs, B. L., You, J.-S., Frey, J. W., Goodman, C. A., Gundermann, D. M. and Hornberger, T. A. (2013), Eccentric contractions increase the phosphorylation of tuberous sclerosis complex-2 (TSC2) and alter the targeting of TSC2 and the mechanistic target of rapamycin to the lysosome. The Journal of Physiology, 591: 4611–4620. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2013.256339
- Issue published online: 16 SEP 2013
- Article first published online: 28 JUN 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 31 MAY 2013 10:58AM EST
- (Received 3 April 2013; accepted after revision 28 May 2013; first published online 3 June 2013)
- • Mechanical stimuli play a major role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass.
- • Signalling through a protein kinase called the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is essential for mechanically induced changes in muscle mass; however, the mechanism(s) via which mechanical stimuli regulate mTOR signalling have not been defined.
- • In this study, mouse skeletal muscles were stimulated with eccentric contractions (ECs) to determine if the mechanical activation of mTOR signalling is associated with changes in the phosphorylation of the tuberous sclerosis complex-2 (TSC2) and the targeting of both mTOR and TSC2 to the lysosome.
- • Our results demonstrate that ECs induce hyper-phosphorylation of TSC2, enhanced lysosomal targeting of mTOR and nearly abolish the lysosomal targeting of TSC2.
- • These novel observations suggest that alterations in the lysosomal targeting of mTOR/TSC2 could play a fundamental role in the mechanism via which mechanical stimuli regulate mTOR signalling and ultimately skeletal muscle mass.
Abstract The goal of this study was to determine whether the mechanical activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling is associated with changes in phosphorylation of tuberous sclerosis complex-2 (TSC2) and targeting of mTOR and TSC2 to the lysosome. As a source of mechanical stimulation, mouse skeletal muscles were subjected to eccentric contractions (ECs). The results demonstrated that ECs induced hyper-phosphorylation of TSC2 and at least part of this increase occurred on residue(s) that fall within RxRxxS/T consensus motif(s). Furthermore, in control muscles, we found that both mTOR and TSC2 are highly enriched at the lysosome. Intriguingly, ECs enhanced the lysosomal association of mTOR and almost completely abolished the lysosomal association of TSC2. Based on these results, we developed a new model that could potentially explain how mechanical stimuli activate mTOR signalling. Furthermore, this is the first study to reveal that the activation of mTOR is associated with the translocation of TSC2 away from the lysosome. Since a large number of signalling pathways rely on TSC2 to control mTOR signalling, our results have potentially revealed a fundamental mechanism via which not only mechanical, but also various other types of stimuli, control mTOR signalling.