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The Journal of Physiology

Cover image for Vol. 589 Issue 1

January 2011

Volume 589, Issue 1

Pages 1–259

  1. PERSPECTIVES

    1. Top of page
    2. PERSPECTIVES
    3. TOPICAL REVIEWS
    4. SPECIAL SECTION REVIEWS: INFORMATION PROCESSING IN THE PRIMATE VISUAL SYSTEM
    5. SPECIAL SECTION RELATED PAPERS
    6. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR
    7. NEUROSCIENCE
    8. CARDIOVASCULAR
    9. RENAL AND ENDOCRINE
    10. SKELETAL MUSCLE AND EXERCISE
    11. INTEGRATIVE
    12. ERRATA
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    3. You have free access to this content
  2. TOPICAL REVIEWS

    1. Top of page
    2. PERSPECTIVES
    3. TOPICAL REVIEWS
    4. SPECIAL SECTION REVIEWS: INFORMATION PROCESSING IN THE PRIMATE VISUAL SYSTEM
    5. SPECIAL SECTION RELATED PAPERS
    6. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR
    7. NEUROSCIENCE
    8. CARDIOVASCULAR
    9. RENAL AND ENDOCRINE
    10. SKELETAL MUSCLE AND EXERCISE
    11. INTEGRATIVE
    12. ERRATA
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The neglected role of insulin-like growth factors in the maternal circulation regulating fetal growth (pages 7–20)

      A. N. Sferruzzi-Perri, J. A. Owens, K. G. Pringle and C. T. Roberts

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.198622

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  3. SPECIAL SECTION REVIEWS: INFORMATION PROCESSING IN THE PRIMATE VISUAL SYSTEM

    1. Top of page
    2. PERSPECTIVES
    3. TOPICAL REVIEWS
    4. SPECIAL SECTION REVIEWS: INFORMATION PROCESSING IN THE PRIMATE VISUAL SYSTEM
    5. SPECIAL SECTION RELATED PAPERS
    6. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR
    7. NEUROSCIENCE
    8. CARDIOVASCULAR
    9. RENAL AND ENDOCRINE
    10. SKELETAL MUSCLE AND EXERCISE
    11. INTEGRATIVE
    12. ERRATA
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      Information processing in the primate visual system (pages 29–31)

      Paul R. Martin and Samuel G. Solomon

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.201798

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      Corticogeniculate feedback and visual processing in the primate (pages 33–40)

      Farran Briggs and W. Martin Usrey

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.193599

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      The neural basis of visual attention (pages 49–57)

      James W. Bisley

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.192666

  4. SPECIAL SECTION RELATED PAPERS

    1. Top of page
    2. PERSPECTIVES
    3. TOPICAL REVIEWS
    4. SPECIAL SECTION REVIEWS: INFORMATION PROCESSING IN THE PRIMATE VISUAL SYSTEM
    5. SPECIAL SECTION RELATED PAPERS
    6. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR
    7. NEUROSCIENCE
    8. CARDIOVASCULAR
    9. RENAL AND ENDOCRINE
    10. SKELETAL MUSCLE AND EXERCISE
    11. INTEGRATIVE
    12. ERRATA
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      Segregation of chromatic and luminance signals using a novel grating stimulus (pages 59–73)

      Barry B. Lee, Hao Sun and Arne Valberg

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.188862

      Signals leaving the retina must transfer information about the luminance and chromatic dimensions of the natural world. It has been suggested that, to optimize information transmission, these signals should be strictly segregated in different pathways, such as the parvocellular and magnocellular systems. Another suggestion is that signals about luminance and colour may be combined in the parvocellular pathway. We compared physiological and psychophysical responses to gratings that compound both luminance and colour to responses with pure luminance colour and gratings. The results strongly support the idea of strict segregation of luminance and chromatic signals in the afferent visual pathway.

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      Correlated firing among major ganglion cell types in primate retina (pages 75–86)

      Martin Greschner, Jonathon Shlens, Constantina Bakolitsa, Greg D. Field, Jeffrey L. Gauthier, Lauren H. Jepson, Alexander Sher, Alan M. Litke and E. J. Chichilnisky

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.193888

      This paper examines the correlated firing among multiple ganglion cell types in the retina. For many years it has been known that ganglion cells exhibit a tendency to fire simultaneously more or less frequently than would be predicted by chance. However, the particular patterns of correlated activity in the primate retina have been unclear. Here we reveal systematic, distance-dependent correlations between different ganglion cell types. For the most part, the patterns of activity are consistent with a model in which noise in cone photoreceptors propagates through common retinal circuitry, creating correlations among ganglion cell signals.

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      A comparison of visual responses in the lateral geniculate nucleus of alert and anaesthetized macaque monkeys (pages 87–99)

      Henry J. Alitto, Bartlett D. Moore 4th, Daniel L. Rathbun and W. Martin Usrey

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.190538

      Neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus are the major source of visual input to the cerebral cortex. Much of our understanding of the physiology of LGN neurons comes from data collected in anaesthetized animals. This study examines the visual responses of LGN neurons in alert animals and compares these responses to those from anaesthetized animals. Compared to the anaesthetized animal, LGN neurons in the alert animal respond to visual stimuli with stronger responses and follow stimuli drifting at higher spatial and temporal frequencies. Stronger responses are likely to translate into an increased coupling between the LGN and visual cortex, as firing rate and interspike interval are known to influence the dynamics of synaptic communication between the two structures.

  5. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR

    1. Top of page
    2. PERSPECTIVES
    3. TOPICAL REVIEWS
    4. SPECIAL SECTION REVIEWS: INFORMATION PROCESSING IN THE PRIMATE VISUAL SYSTEM
    5. SPECIAL SECTION RELATED PAPERS
    6. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR
    7. NEUROSCIENCE
    8. CARDIOVASCULAR
    9. RENAL AND ENDOCRINE
    10. SKELETAL MUSCLE AND EXERCISE
    11. INTEGRATIVE
    12. ERRATA
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      Genetic dissection of ion currents underlying all-or-none action potentials in C. elegans body-wall muscle cells (pages 101–117)

      Ping Liu, Qian Ge, Bojun Chen, Lawrence Salkoff, Michael I. Kotlikoff and Zhao-Wen Wang

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.200683

      Mammalian skeletal muscle contractions are initiated by all-or-none action potentials (APs) triggered by motoneurons. In C. elegans locomotory muscle, however, the characteristics of APs, the underlying ion channels, and their role in Ca2+ release are poorly understood. Here we show that C. elegans locomotory muscle fires spontaneous, all-or-none APs, which appear to be modulated by motoneuron activity. The upstroke of muscle APs requires Ca2+ entry through a voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (EGL-19), whereas the downstroke of the APs relies on a voltage-gated potassium channel as well as a Ca2+- and Cl-activated potassium channel. AP-elicited elevations of intracellular Ca2+ concentration require both EGL-19 in the plasma membrane and the ryanodine receptor in the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. The discovery of all-or-none action potentials in C. elegans body-wall muscle brings the physiology of C. elegans much closer to that of other metazoans, and strengthens its utility as a model organism.

  6. NEUROSCIENCE

    1. Top of page
    2. PERSPECTIVES
    3. TOPICAL REVIEWS
    4. SPECIAL SECTION REVIEWS: INFORMATION PROCESSING IN THE PRIMATE VISUAL SYSTEM
    5. SPECIAL SECTION RELATED PAPERS
    6. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR
    7. NEUROSCIENCE
    8. CARDIOVASCULAR
    9. RENAL AND ENDOCRINE
    10. SKELETAL MUSCLE AND EXERCISE
    11. INTEGRATIVE
    12. ERRATA
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      Reciprocal Ia inhibition contributes to motoneuronal hyperpolarisation during the inactive phase of locomotion and scratching in the cat (pages 119–134)

      Svend S. Geertsen, Katinka Stecina, Claire F. Meehan, Jens B. Nielsen and Hans Hultborn

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.199125

      During a movement, the contraction of a given muscle group is often coordinated with the simultaneous relaxation of its antagonist muscles. The neural basis of this antagonist relaxation has been investigated in both animal and human experiments for decades and it is believed that activation of the Ia inhibitory interneurones by central motor programmes plays a major role in this relaxation of antagonist muscles. The alternating movements during locomotion would seem to especially require reciprocal actions, but recent studies have raised significant questions about the role of this inhibition. We found that inhibition evoked by these inhibitory interneurones is largest when their target motoneurones are inactive – even in the absence of supraspinal influence. The results of this work provide new evidence for the role of the Ia inhibitory interneurones during rhythmic motor activity. This supports the classical view of reciprocal inhibition as a basis for antagonist relaxation.

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      Free radical signalling underlies inhibition of CaV3.2 T-type calcium channels by nitrous oxide in the pain pathway (pages 135–148)

      Peihan Orestes, Damir Bojadzic, JeongHan Lee, Emily Leach, Reza Salajegheh, Michael R. DiGruccio, Michael T. Nelson and Slobodan M. Todorovic

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.196220

      Nitrous oxide (N2O) has long been used as a pain reliever, but little is known of its targets in the body. We show that N2O indirectly inhibits T-type calcium channels through free radical reactions. These reactions depend on a histidine residue on the channel that binds metal ions. If we prevent this histidine from binding metals, N2O cannot inhibit T-currents. Mice that are treated with EUK-134 to remove free radicals show little pain relief after N2O administration. This report provides new information on how N2O interacts with ion channels, helping our understanding of how this popular pain reliever works.

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      Synaptic vesicles control the time course of neurotransmitter secretion via a Ca2+/H+ antiport (pages 149–167)

      J. Miguel Cordeiro, Paula P. Gonçalves and Yves Dunant

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.199224

      A low-affinity Ca2+/H+ antiport has been described in the membrane of synaptic vesicles isolated from mammalian brain cortex. We show here evidence that the role of the vesicular Ca2+/H+ antiport is to shorten the time course of transmitter release during individual nerve impulses. The process seems of great importance since it can enable rapid synapses to transmit briefer signals, and so work at high frequencies.

  7. CARDIOVASCULAR

    1. Top of page
    2. PERSPECTIVES
    3. TOPICAL REVIEWS
    4. SPECIAL SECTION REVIEWS: INFORMATION PROCESSING IN THE PRIMATE VISUAL SYSTEM
    5. SPECIAL SECTION RELATED PAPERS
    6. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR
    7. NEUROSCIENCE
    8. CARDIOVASCULAR
    9. RENAL AND ENDOCRINE
    10. SKELETAL MUSCLE AND EXERCISE
    11. INTEGRATIVE
    12. ERRATA
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      In obese Zucker rats, lipids accumulate in the heart despite normal mitochondrial content, morphology and long-chain fatty acid oxidation (pages 169–180)

      Graham P. Holloway, Laelie A. Snook, Robert J. Harris, Jan F. C. Glatz, Joost J. F. P. Luiken and Arend Bonen

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.198663

      The storage of fat within the heart muscle has been associated with reductions in force production, which has implications for the ability of the heart to adequately pump blood. With the assistance of membrane proteins known as transport proteins, fats from the blood can be moved into heart muscle cells, where they can either be stored or used for generating energy (within a structure called mitochondria) to pump blood. We provide evidence that in obese animals more fat accumulates within the heart as a result of their increased transport across the membranes of heart cells, not due to reductions in mitochondrial number or function. The knowledge of why fat accumulates in the heart may provide insight into novel treatments/therapies, and the current study suggests therapies focused on limiting the entry of fats into the heart may restore the ability of the heart to pump blood.

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      Temporally resolved cAMP monitoring in endothelial cells uncovers a thrombin-induced [cAMP] elevation mediated via the Ca2+-dependent production of prostacyclin (pages 181–193)

      R. C. Werthmann, M. J. Lohse and M. Bünemann

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.200121

      Endothelial cells form the innermost layer of blood vessels and build a barrier between blood and tissue. The permeability of this barrier is antagonistically controlled by the intracellular signalling molecules Ca2+ and cAMP. A rise in Ca2+ concentration increases permeability, whereas increased cAMP levels strengthen the endothelial cell barrier. In this study we investigated the impact of the coagulation factor thrombin that is known to increase Ca2+ concentrations and endothelial permeability, on cAMP levels. Surprisingly we detected that thrombin also led to a delayed and slow increase of cAMP concentrations. We discovered that this increase is due to the production of prostacyclin and a subsequent stimulation of endothelial prostacyclin receptors that finally induce cAMP production. This thrombin-mediated increase of cAMP levels might constitute a negative feedback control to protect endothelial barrier function despite a rise of Ca2+ concentrations.

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      Physiological angiogenesis is a graded, not threshold, response (pages 195–206)

      Stuart Egginton, Iman Badr, James Williams, David Hauton, Guus C. Baan and Richard T. Jaspers

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.194951

      The formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is important during development and tissue repair. In many diseases the biggest drive for this process clearly comes from chemical signals. However, normal physiological angiogenesis, such as seen with increased muscle activity, appears to be more driven by mechanical signals including increased friction on the inside of blood vessels, and stretch of vessels caused by the surrounding muscle fibres. It is unclear whether the signals required to stimulate capillary growth act in an all-or-none manner. When muscles were subjected to varying degrees of stretch, angiogenesis was recruited in a graded fashion, although chemical signals were increased to a similar extent. This may prove to be important in the design of targeted therapies to alleviate problems associated with too many or too few vessels.

  8. RENAL AND ENDOCRINE

    1. Top of page
    2. PERSPECTIVES
    3. TOPICAL REVIEWS
    4. SPECIAL SECTION REVIEWS: INFORMATION PROCESSING IN THE PRIMATE VISUAL SYSTEM
    5. SPECIAL SECTION RELATED PAPERS
    6. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR
    7. NEUROSCIENCE
    8. CARDIOVASCULAR
    9. RENAL AND ENDOCRINE
    10. SKELETAL MUSCLE AND EXERCISE
    11. INTEGRATIVE
    12. ERRATA
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      Renal mechanisms contributing to the antihypertensive action of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition in Ren-2 transgenic rats with inducible hypertension (pages 207–219)

      Zuzana Honetschlägerová, Zuzana Husková, Zdeňka Vaňourková, Alexandra Sporková, Herbert J. Kramer, Sung Hee Hwang, Hsing-Ju Tsai, Bruce D. Hammock, John D. Imig, Luděk Červenka and Libor Kopkan

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.199505

      Arachidonic acid metabolites called epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) influence vascular tone and renal tubular sodium and water transport and thus have been implicated in the control of blood pressure. Inhibition of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), which reduces EET degradation to the corresponding diols, leads to substantial attenuation of malignant hypertension in a transgenic rat strain harbouring the mouse renin gene particularly via an improvement of renal function. The observed antihypertensive and renoprotective effects of this novel pharmacological approach provide a potentially new direction in antihypertensive therapy.

  9. SKELETAL MUSCLE AND EXERCISE

    1. Top of page
    2. PERSPECTIVES
    3. TOPICAL REVIEWS
    4. SPECIAL SECTION REVIEWS: INFORMATION PROCESSING IN THE PRIMATE VISUAL SYSTEM
    5. SPECIAL SECTION RELATED PAPERS
    6. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR
    7. NEUROSCIENCE
    8. CARDIOVASCULAR
    9. RENAL AND ENDOCRINE
    10. SKELETAL MUSCLE AND EXERCISE
    11. INTEGRATIVE
    12. ERRATA
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      Faster O2 uptake kinetics in canine skeletal muscle in situ after acute creatine kinase inhibition (pages 221–233)

      Bruno Grassi, Harry B. Rossiter, Michael C. Hogan, Richard A. Howlett, James E. Harris, Matthew L. Goodwin, John L. Dobson and L. Bruce Gladden

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.195164

      The ability to sustain skeletal muscle contractions is dependent on the conversion of chemical to mechanical energy – a process fueled by adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The link between two of the major mechanisms for ATP provision, phosphocreatine (PCr) breakdown and oxidative phosphorylation, was investigated in canine muscle. Infusion of a drug to prevent PCr breakdown (via inhibition of the enzyme creatine kinase; CK) caused (among other effects) a faster adjustment of energy provision from oxidation upon the onset of contractions. Thus, in mammalian skeletal muscle the CK enzyme slows the signal responsible for the activation of oxidative phosphorylation. Sudden increases in the demands for energy at the onset of exercise are met by PCr breakdown, but this process is functionally related, presumably through the levels of some of its metabolites, to the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation, the most important pathway for ATP resynthesis.

  10. INTEGRATIVE

    1. Top of page
    2. PERSPECTIVES
    3. TOPICAL REVIEWS
    4. SPECIAL SECTION REVIEWS: INFORMATION PROCESSING IN THE PRIMATE VISUAL SYSTEM
    5. SPECIAL SECTION RELATED PAPERS
    6. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR
    7. NEUROSCIENCE
    8. CARDIOVASCULAR
    9. RENAL AND ENDOCRINE
    10. SKELETAL MUSCLE AND EXERCISE
    11. INTEGRATIVE
    12. ERRATA
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      Energy expenditure during sleep, sleep deprivation and sleep following sleep deprivation in adult humans (pages 235–244)

      Christopher M. Jung, Edward L. Melanson, Emily J. Frydendall, Leigh Perreault, Robert H. Eckel and Kenneth P. Wright

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.197517

      One of the proposed functions of sleep is to conserve energy. We determined the amount of energy conserved by sleep in humans, how much more energy is expended when missing a night of sleep, and how much energy is conserved during recovery sleep. Findings support the hypothesis that a function of sleep is to conserve energy in humans. Sleep deprivation increased energy expenditure indicating that maintaining wakefulness under bed-rest conditions is energetically costly. Recovery sleep after sleep deprivation reduced energy use compared to baseline sleep suggesting that human metabolic physiology has the capacity to make adjustments to respond to the energetic cost of sleep deprivation. The finding that sleep deprivation increases energy expenditure should not be interpreted that sleep deprivation is a safe or effective strategy for weight loss as other studies have shown that chronic sleep deprivation is associated with impaired cognition and weight gain.

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      Role of blood flow in carotid body chemoreflex function in heart failure (pages 245–258)

      Yanfeng Ding, Yu-Long Li and Harold D. Schultz

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.200584

      Activation of the sympathetic nervous system hastens the rate of progression and severity of chronic heart failure (CHF). Chemically sensitive nerves in the carotid body (CB) that stimulate sympathetic nerve activity become overly active in CHF and contribute to this phenomenon. The stimulus for activation of these CB chemoreceptors is not known. Blood supply to tissues is impaired due to the failing heart. In this study we tested whether a chronic reduction in blood flow to the CB may contribute to altered CB chemoreceptor function. The results show that changes that occur in CB chemoreceptor function during CHF are identical to those that occur if blood flow is simply reduced to the CB for several weeks. The results suggest that chronic impairment of blood flow may be the key step in the pathophysiological events that cause sympathetic nervous system activation in heart failure.

  11. ERRATA

    1. Top of page
    2. PERSPECTIVES
    3. TOPICAL REVIEWS
    4. SPECIAL SECTION REVIEWS: INFORMATION PROCESSING IN THE PRIMATE VISUAL SYSTEM
    5. SPECIAL SECTION RELATED PAPERS
    6. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR
    7. NEUROSCIENCE
    8. CARDIOVASCULAR
    9. RENAL AND ENDOCRINE
    10. SKELETAL MUSCLE AND EXERCISE
    11. INTEGRATIVE
    12. ERRATA
    1. You have free access to this content
      Errata (page 259)

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.202853

      This article corrects:

      The curse of the sympathetic nervous system: are men or women more unfortunate?

      Vol. 588, Issue 22, 4345–4346, Article first published online: 15 NOV 2010

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