Development of brain PET using GAPD arrays

Authors

  • Jung Jin Ho,

    1. Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742, Korea and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710, Republic of Korea
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  • Choi Yong,

    1. Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742, Korea and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710, Republic of Korea
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    • Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Electronic mail: ychoi.image@gmail.com; also at Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 1 Sinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742, Korea. Telephone: 82-2-705-8910; Fax: 82-2-713-2652.

  • Hong Key Jo,

    1. Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742, Korea and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710, Republic of Korea
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  • Kang Jihoon,

    1. Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742, Korea and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710, Republic of Korea
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  • Hu Wei,

    1. Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742, Korea and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710, Republic of Korea
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  • Lim Hyun Keong,

    1. Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742, Korea and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710, Republic of Korea
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  • Huh Yoonsuk,

    1. Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742, Korea and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710, Republic of Korea
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  • Kim Sangsu,

    1. Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742, Korea and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710, Republic of Korea
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  • Jung Jiwoong,

    1. Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742, Korea and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710, Republic of Korea
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  • Kim Kyu Bom

    1. Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742, Korea and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710, Republic of Korea
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Abstract

Purpose:

In recent times, there has been great interest in the use of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GAPDs) as scintillator readout in positron emission tomography (PET) detectors because of their advantages, such as high gain, compact size, low power consumption, and magnetic field insensitivity. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel PET system based on GAPD arrays for brain imaging.

Methods:

The PET consisted of 72 detector modules arranged in a ring of 330 mm diameter. Each PET module was composed of a 4 × 4 matrix of 3 × 3 × 20 mm3 cerium-doped lutetium yttrium orthosilicate (LYSO) crystals coupled with a 4 × 4 array three-side tileable GAPD. The signals from each PET module were fed into preamplifiers using a 3 m long flat cable and then sent to a position decoder circuit (PDC), which output a digital address and an analog pulse of the interacted channel among 64 preamplifier signals tranmitted from four PET detector modules. The PDC outputs were fed into field programmable gate array (FPGA)-embedded data acquisition (DAQ) boards. The analog signal was then digitized, and arrival time and energy of the signal were calculated and stored.

Results

: The energy and coincidence timing resolutions measured for 511 keV gamma rays were 18.4 ± 3.1% and 2.6 ns, respectively. The transaxial spatial resolution and sensitivity in the center of field of view (FOV) were 3.1 mm and 0.32% cps/Bq, respectively. The rods down to a diameter of 2.5 mm were resolved in a hot-rod phantom image, and activity distribution patterns between the white and gray matters in the Hoffman brain phantom were well imaged.

Conclusions:

Experimental results indicate that a PET system can be developed using GAPD arrays and the GAPD-based PET system can provide high-quality PET imaging.

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