Magnetothermoacoustics from magnetic nanoparticles by short bursting or frequency chirped alternating magnetic field: A theoretical feasibility analysis

Authors


Abstract

Purpose:

To propose an alternative method of thermoacoustic wave generation based on heating of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using alternating magnetic field (AMF).

Methods:

The feasibility of thermoacoustic wave generation from MNPs by applying a short-burst of AMF or a frequency-modulated AMF is theoretically analyzed. As the relaxation of MNPs is strongly dependent upon the amplitude and frequency of AMF, either an amplitude modulated, fixed frequency AMF (termed time-domain AMF) or a frequency modulated, constant amplitude AMF (termed frequency-domain AMF) will result in time-varying heat dissipation from MNPs, which has the potential to generate thermoacoustic waves. Following Rosensweigˈs model of specific power loss of MNPs in a steady-state AMF, the time-resolved heat dissipations of MNPs of superparamagnetic size when exposed to a short bursting of AMF and/or to a linearly frequency chirped AMF are derived, and the resulted acoustic propagation is presented. Based on experimentally measured temperature-rise characteristics of a superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticle (SPION) matrix in a steady-state AMF of various frequencies, the heat dissipations of the SPION under time-domain and frequency-domain AMF configurations that could have practical utility for thermoacoustic wave generation are estimated.

Results:

The initial rates of the temperature-rise of the SPION matrix were measured at an iron-weight concentration of 0.8 mg/ml and an AMF frequency of 88.8 kHz to 1.105 MHz. The measured initial rates of temperature-rise were modeled by Rosensweigˈs theory, and projected to 10 MHz AMF frequency, at which a 1μs bursting corresponding to a 1.55 mm axial resolution of acoustic detection could contain 10 complete cycles of AMF oscillation and the power dissipation is approximately 84 times of that at 1 MHz. Exposing the SPION matrix to a 1 μs bursting of AMF at 10 MHz frequency and 100 Oe field intensity would produce a volumetric heat dissipation of 7.7 μJ/cm3 over the microsecond duration of the AMF burst. If the SPION matrix is exposed to a 1 ms long AMF train at 100 Oe field intensity that chirps linearly from 1 to 10 MHz, the volumetric heat dissipation produced over each 2π phase change of the AMF oscillation is estimated to increase from 0.15 to 1.1 μJ/cm3 within the millisecond duration of the chirping of AMF.

Conclusions:

The heat dissipations upon SPION (∼1 mg/ml iron-weight concentration) by a 1μs bursting of 100 Oe AMF at 10 MHz and a 1 ms train of 100 Oe AMF that chirps linearly from 1 to 10 MHz were estimated to determine the potential of thermal-acoustic wave generation. Although thermoacoustic wave generation from MNPs by time- or frequency-domain AMF applications is predicted, the experimental generation of such a wave remains challenging.

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