Radiation imaging physics
Task-based detectability in CT image reconstruction by filtered backprojection and penalized likelihood estimation
Nonstationarity is an important aspect of imaging performance in CT and cone-beam CT (CBCT), especially for systems employing iterative reconstruction. This work presents a theoretical framework for both filtered-backprojection (FBP) and penalized-likelihood (PL) reconstruction that includes explicit descriptions of nonstationary noise, spatial resolution, and task-based detectability index. Potential utility of the model was demonstrated in the optimal selection of regularization parameters in PL reconstruction.
Analytical models for local modulation transfer function (MTF) and noise-power spectrum (NPS) were investigated for both FBP and PL reconstruction, including explicit dependence on the object and spatial location. For FBP, a cascaded systems analysis framework was adapted to account for nonstationarity by separately calculating fluence and system gains for each ray passing through any given voxel. For PL, the point-spread function and covariance were derived using the implicit function theorem and first-order Taylor expansion according to Fessler [“ Mean and variance of implicitly defined biased estimators (such as penalized maximum likelihood): Applications to tomography,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 5(3), – (1996)]. Detectability index was calculated for a variety of simple tasks. The model for PL was used in selecting the regularization strength parameter to optimize task-based performance, with both a constant and a spatially varying regularization map.
Theoretical models of FBP and PL were validated in 2D simulated fan-beam data and found to yield accurate predictions of local MTF and NPS as a function of the object and the spatial location. The NPS for both FBP and PL exhibit similar anisotropic nature depending on the pathlength (and therefore, the object and spatial location within the object) traversed by each ray, with the PL NPS experiencing greater smoothing along directions with higher noise. The MTF of FBP is isotropic and independent of location to a first order approximation, whereas the MTF of PL is anisotropic in a manner complementary to the NPS. Task-based detectability demonstrates dependence on the task, object, spatial location, and smoothing parameters. A spatially varying regularization “map” designed from locally optimal regularization can improve overall detectability beyond that achievable with the commonly used constant regularization parameter.
Analytical models for task-based FBP and PL reconstruction are predictive of nonstationary noise and resolution characteristics, providing a valuable framework for understanding and optimizing system performance in CT and CBCT.