Comparison of breathing gated CT images generated using a 5DCT technique and a commercial clinical protocol in a porcine model

Authors


Abstract

Purpose:

To demonstrate that a “5DCT” technique which utilizes fast helical acquisition yields the same respiratory-gated images as a commercial technique for regular, mechanically produced breathing cycles.

Methods:

Respiratory-gated images of an anesthetized, mechanically ventilated pig were generated using a Siemens low-pitch helical protocol and 5DCT for a range of breathing rates and amplitudes and with standard and low dose imaging protocols. 5DCT reconstructions were independently evaluated by measuring the distances between tissue positions predicted by a 5D motion model and those measured using deformable registration, as well by reconstructing the originally acquired scans. Discrepancies between the 5DCT and commercial reconstructions were measured using landmark correspondences.

Results:

The mean distance between model predicted tissue positions and deformably registered tissue positions over the nine datasets was 0.65 ± 0.28 mm. Reconstructions of the original scans were on average accurate to 0.78 ± 0.57 mm. Mean landmark displacement between the commercial and 5DCT images was 1.76 ± 1.25 mm while the maximum lung tissue motion over the breathing cycle had a mean value of 27.2 ± 4.6 mm. An image composed of the average of 30 deformably registered images acquired with a low dose protocol had 6 HU image noise (single standard deviation) in the heart versus 31 HU for the commercial images.

Conclusions:

An end to end evaluation of the 5DCT technique was conducted through landmark based comparison to breathing gated images acquired with a commercial protocol under highly regular ventilation. The techniques were found to agree to within 2 mm for most respiratory phases and most points in the lung.

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