SU-E-T-371: Evaluating the Convolution Algorithm of a Commercially Available Radiosurgery Irradiator Using a Novel Phantom




The purpose of this study was to develop and use a novel phantom to evaluate the accuracy and usefulness of the Leskell Gamma Plan convolution-based dose calculation algorithm compared with the current TMR10 algorithm.


A novel phantom was designed to fit the Leskell Gamma Knife G Frame which could accommodate various materials in the form of one inch diameter, cylindrical plugs. The plugs were split axially to allow EBT2 film placement. Film measurements were made during two experiments. The first utilized plans generated on a homogeneous acrylic phantom setup using the TMR10 algorithm, with various materials inserted into the phantom during film irradiation to assess the effect on delivered dose due to unplanned heterogeneities upstream in the beam path. The second experiment utilized plans made on CT scans of different heterogeneous setups, with one plan using the TMR10 dose calculation algorithm and the second using the convolution-based algorithm. Materials used to introduce heterogeneities included air, LDPE, polystyrene, Delrin, Teflon, and aluminum.


The data shows that, as would be expected, having heterogeneities in the beam path does induce dose delivery error when using the TMR10 algorithm, with the largest errors being due to the heterogeneities with electron densities most different from that of water, i.e. air, Teflon, and aluminum. Additionally, the Convolution algorithm did account for the heterogeneous material and provided a more accurate predicted dose, in extreme cases up to a 7–12% improvement over the TMR10 algorithm. The convolution algorithm expected dose was accurate to within 3% in all cases.


This study proves that the convolution algorithm is an improvement over the TMR10 algorithm when heterogeneities are present. More work is needed to determine what the heterogeneity size/volume limits are where this improvement exists, and in what clinical and/or research cases this would be relevant.