Heterodyne frequency-domain multispectral diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer in the parallel-plane transmission geometry




The authors introduce a state-of-the-art all-optical clinical diffuse optical tomography (DOT) imaging instrument which collects spatially dense, multispectral, frequency-domain breast data in the parallel-plate geometry.


The instrument utilizes a CCD-based heterodyne detection scheme that permits massively parallel detection of diffuse photon density wave amplitude and phase for a large number of source–detector pairs (106). The stand-alone clinical DOT instrument thus offers high spatial resolution with reduced crosstalk between absorption and scattering. Other novel features include a fringe profilometry system for breast boundary segmentation, real-time data normalization, and a patient bed design which permits both axial and sagittal breast measurements.


The authors validated the instrument using tissue simulating phantoms with two different chromophore-containing targets and one scattering target. The authors also demonstrated the instrument in a case study breast cancer patient; the reconstructed 3D image of endogenous chromophores and scattering gave tumor localization in agreement with MRI.


Imaging with a novel parallel-plate DOT breast imager that employs highly parallel, high-resolution CCD detection in the frequency-domain was demonstrated.