SU-F-R-54: CT-Texture Based Early Tumor Treatment Response Assessment During Radiation Therapy Delivery: Small Cell Versus Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers




Tumor treatment response may potentially be assessed during radiation therapy (RT) by analyzing changes in CT-textures. We investigated the different early RT-responses between small cell (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as assessed by CT-texture.


Daily diagnostic-quality CT acquired during routine CT-guided RT using a CT-on-Rails for 13-NSCLC and 5-SCLC patients were analyzed. These patient had ages ranging from 45–78 and 38–63 years, respectively, for NSCLC and SCLC groups, and tumor-stages ranging from T2-T4, and were treated with either RT or chemotherapy and RT with 45–66Gy/ 20–34 fractions. Gross-tumor volume (GTV) contour was generated on each daily CT by populating GTV contour from simulation to daily CTs with manual editing if necessary. CT-texture parameters, such as Hounsfield Unit (HU) histogram, mean HU, skewness, kurtosis, entropy, and short-run high-gray level emphasis (SRHGLE), were calculated in GTV from each daily CT-set using an in house software tool. Difference in changes of these texture parameters during RT between NSCLC and SCLC was analyzed and compared with GTV volume changes.


Radiation-induced changes in CT-texture were different between SCLC and NSCLC. Average changes from first to the last fractions for NSCLC and SCLC in GTV were 28±10(12–44) and 30±15(11–47) HU (mean HU reduction), 12.7% and 18.3% (entropy), 50% and 55% (SRHGLE), 19% and 22% (kurtosis), and 5.2% and 22% (skewness), respectively. Good correlation in kurtosis changes and GTV was seen (R2=0.8923) for SCLC, but not for NSCLC (R2=0.4748). SCLC had better correlations between GTV volume reduction and entropy (SCLC R2=0.847; NSCLC R2=0.6485), skewness (SCLC R2=0.935; NSCLC R2=0.7666), or SRHGLE (SCLC R2=0.9619; NSCLC R2=0.787).


NSCLC and SCLC exhibited different early RT-responses as assessed by CT-texture changes during RT-delivery. The observed larger changes in various CT-texture parameters for SCLC indicate that SCLC may respond to RT more rapid than NSCLC.