Respiratory-gated radiotherapy and dynamic tracking employ real-time imaging and surrogate motion-monitoring methods with tumor motion prediction in advance of real-time. This study investigated respiratory motion data length on prediction accuracy of tumor motion.
Predictions generated from the algorithm are validated against a one-dimensional surrogate signal of amplitude versus time. Prediction consists of three major components: extracting top-ranked subcomponents from training data matching the last respiratory cycle; calculating weighting factors from best-matched subcomponents; fusing data proceeding best-matched subcomponents with respective weighting factors to form predictions. Predictions for one respiratory cycle (∼3-6seconds) were assessed using 351 patient data from the respiratory management device. Performance was evaluated for correlation coefficient and root mean square error (RMSE) between prediction and final respiratory cycle.
Respiratory prediction results fell into two classes, where best predictions for 70 cycles or less performed using relative prediction and greater than 70 cycles are predicted similarly using relative and derivative relative. For 70 respiratory cycles or less, the average correlation between prediction and final respiratory cycle was 0.9999±0.0001, 0.9999±0.0001, 0.9988±0.0003, 0.9985±0.0023, and 0.9981±0.0023 with RMSE values of 0.0091±0.0030, 0.0091±0.0030, 0.0305±0.0051, 0.0299±0.0259, and 0.0299±0.0259 for equal, relative, pattern, derivative equal and derivative relative weighting methods, respectively. Respectively, the total best prediction for each method was 37, 65, 20, 22, and 22. For data with greater than 70 cycles average correlation was 0.9999±0.0001, 0.9999±0.0001, 0.9988±0.0004, 0.9988±0.0020, and 0.9988±0.0020 with RMSE values of 0.0081±0.0031, 0.0082±0.0033, 0.0306±0.0056, 0.0218±0.0222, and 0.0218±0.0222 for equal, relative, pattern, derivative equal and derivative relative weighting methods, respectively. Respectively, the total best prediction for each method was 24, 44, 42, 30, and 45.
The prediction algorithms are effective in estimating surrogate motion in advance. These results indicate an advantage in using relative prediction for shorter data and either relative or derivative relative prediction for longer data.