MO-FG-CAMPUS-JeP1-02: Proton Range Verification of Scanned Pencil Beams Using Prompt Gamma Imaging




Prompt gammas are emitted along the proton beam path and have an emission profile correlated with the depth dose profile. In this study, the accuracy of in-vivo proton range verification using a 1-D prompt gamma camera is assessed.


The 1-D camera is comprised of a tungsten slit collimator positioned in front of a linear array of LYSO scintillating crystals coupled to silicon photomultipliers. The imaged gamma profiles of individual pencil beam spots and energy layers were analyzed by determining the relative shifts from the expected gamma profiles based on analytic prediction or reference measurements. The range retrieval precision was evaluated by reproducibility measurements and by irradiation through a heterogeneous phantom composed of materials with known stopping power ratios. The camera was evaluated at clinical doses in pencil beam scanning mode on a head-and-neck phantom (HN). Two scenarios were studied: 5 mm systematic range error; and setup error of 10 mm transverse to the proton beam.


The camera range retrieval precision was 2 mm at clinical doses. For the heterogeneous phantom and HN phantom studies, the discrepancies between the analytic model and measurements were less than 2 mm for both spot and iso-energy layer analysis. For the simulated 5 mm range error, the retrieved shifts were 4.3±2.0 mm. For the 10 mm setup error, large shifts (> 4 mm) were observed for some spots due to differences in the irradiated and expected beam path from the measurements without setup error.


Our studies demonstrated that in-vivo proton range verification is feasible using a 1D prompt gamma camera with a 2 mm range retrieval precision. Pencil beam spot under or over ranging can be detected via comparison between measured and expected profiles.