TU-AB-BRA-09: A Novel Method of Generating Ultrafast Volumetric Cine MRI (VC-MRI) Using Prior 4D-MRI and On-Board Phase-Skipped Encoding Acquisition for Radiotherapy Target Localization




To develop a technique generating ultrafast on-board VC-MRI using prior 4D-MRI and on-board phase-skipped encoding k-space acquisition for real-time 3D target tracking of liver and lung radiotherapy.


The end-of-expiration (EOE) volume in 4D-MRI acquired during the simulation was selected as the prior volume. 3 major respiratory deformation patterns were extracted through the principal component analysis of the deformation field maps (DFMs) generated between EOE and all other phases. The on-board VC-MRI at each instant was considered as a deformation of the prior volume, and the deformation was modeled as a linear combination of the extracted 3 major deformation patterns. To solve the weighting coefficients of the 3 major patterns, a 2D slice was extracted from VC-MRI volume to match with the 2D on-board sampling data, which was generated by 8-fold phase skipped-encoding k-space acquisition (i.e., sample 1 phase-encoding line out of every 8 lines) to achieve an ultrafast 16–24 volumes/s frame rate. The method was evaluated using XCAT digital phantom to simulate lung cancer patients. The 3D volume of end-ofinhalation (EOI) phase at the treatment day was used as ground-truth onboard VC-MRI with simulated changes in 1) breathing amplitude and 2) breathing amplitude/phase change from the simulation day. A liver cancer patient case was evaluated for in-vivo feasibility demonstration.


The comparison between ground truth and estimated on-board VC-MRI shows good agreements. In XCAT study with changed breathing amplitude, the volume-percent-difference(VPD) between ground-truth and estimated tumor volumes at EOI was 6.28% and the Center-of-Mass-Shift(COMS) was 0.82mm; with changed breathing amplitude and phase, the VPD was 8.50% and the COMS was 0.54mm. The study of liver patient case also demonstrated a promising in vivo feasibility of the proposed method


Preliminary results suggest the feasibility to estimate ultrafast VC-MRI for on-board target localization with phase skipped-encoding k-space acquisition.

Research grant from NIH R01-184173