TU-H-BRC-06: Temperature Simulation of Tungsten and W25Re Targets to Deliver High Dose Rate 10 MV Photons




To study the impact of electron beam size, target thickness, and target temperature on the ability of the flattening filter-free mode (FFF) treatment head to deliver high-dose-rate irradiations.


The dose distribution and transient temperature of the X-ray target under 10 MeV electron beam with pulse length of 5 microseconds, and repetition rate of 1000 Hz was studied. A MCNP model was built to calculate the percentage depth dose (PPD) distribution in a water phantom at a distance of 100 cm. ANSYS software was used to run heat transfer simulations. The PPD and temperature for both tungsten and W25Re targets for different electron beam sizes (FHWM 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 mm) and target thickness (0.2 to 2 mm) were studied.


Decreasing the target thickness from 1 mm to 0.5 mm, caused a surface dose increase about 10 percent. For both target materials, the peak temperature was about 1.6 times higher for 0.5 mm electron beam compared to the 1 mm beam after reaching their equilibrium. For increasing target thicknesses, the temperature rise caused by the first pulse is similar for all thicknesses, however the temperature difference for subsequent pulses becomes larger until a constant ratio is reached. The target peak temperature after reaching equilibrium can be calculated by adding the steady state temperature and the amplitude of the temperature oscillation.


This work indicates the potential to obtain high dose rate irradiation by selecting target material, geometry and electron beam parameters. W25Re may not outperformed tungsten when the target is thick due to its relatively low thermal conductivity. The electron beam size only affects the target temperature but not the PPD. Thin target is preferred to obtain high dose rate and low target temperature, however, the resulting high surface dose is a major concern.

NIH funding:R21 EB015957-01; DOD funding:W81XWH-13-1-0165

BL, PM, PB, and RF are founders of TibaRay, Inc. BL is also a borad member. BL and PM have received research grants from Varian Medical System, Inc. and RaySearch Laboratory. RF is an employee of Siemens Healthcare GmbH