Strategies for treating thoracic and liver tumors using pencil beam scanning proton therapy
Thoracic and liver tumors have not been treated with pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy until recently. This is because of concerns about the significant interplay effects between proton spot scanning and patient's respiratory motion. However, not all tumors have unacceptable magnitude of motion for PBS proton therapy. Therefore it is important to analyze the motion and understand the significance of the interplay effect for each patient. The factors that affect interplay effect and its washout include magnitude of motion, spot size, spot scanning sequence and speed. Selection of beam angle, scanning direction, repainting and fractionation can all reduce the interplay effect. An overview of respiratory motion management in PBS proton therapy including assessment of tumor motion and WET evaluation will be first presented. As thoracic tumors have very different motion patterns from liver tumors, examples would be provided for both anatomic sites. As thoracic tumors are typically located within highly heterogeneous environments, dose calculation accuracy is a concern for both treatment target and surrounding organs such as spinal cord or esophagus. Strategies for mitigating the interplay effect in PBS will be presented and the pros and cons of various motion mitigation strategies will be discussed.
- 1.Motion analysis for individual patients with respect to interplay effect
- 2.Interplay effect and mitigation strategies for treating thoracic/liver tumors with PBS
- 3.Treatment planning margins for PBS
- 4.The impact of proton dose calculation engines over heterogeneous treatment target and surrounding organs
I have a current research funding from Varian Medical System under the master agreement between University of Pennsylvania and Varian; L. Lin, I have a current funding from Varian Medical System under the master agreement between University of Pennsylvania and Varian.; H. Li, Na