TH-AB-BRA-11: Using 3D Dosimeters for the Investigation of the Electron Return Effect (ERE) in MR-Guided Radiation Therapy: A Feasibility Study




To demonstrate the capability of 3D radiochromic PRESAGE and Fricke-type dosimeters to measure the influence of magnetic fields on dose distribution, including the electron return effect (ERE), for MR-guided radiation therapy applications.


Short cylindrical 3D dosimeters with PRESAGE and Fricke-type formulations were created in-house prior to irradiations in a 1.5T/7MV MR-linac. Each dosimeter was prepared with a concentric cylindrical air cavity with diameters of 1.5 cm and 2.5 cm, and the diameters of the dosimeters were 7.2 cm and 8.8 cm for PRESAGE and Fricke-type respectively. The dosimeters were irradiated within the bore of the MR-linac with the flat face of the dosimeters perpendicular to the magnetic field. Dosimeters were irradiated to approximately 9 Gy and 29 Gy to the center of dosimeters with a 15×15 cm2 field. The PRESAGE dosimeter was scanned using an optical-CT 2 hours post-irradiation; the Fricke-type dosimeter was immediately imaged with the MR component of the MR-linac post-irradiation.


Axial slices of the dose distributions show a clear demonstration of the dose enhancement due to the ERE above the cavity and the region of reduced dose below the cavity. The regions of increased and reduced dose are rotated with respect to the radiation beam axis due to the average directional change of the electrons. Measurements from line profiles show the dose enhanced up to ∼0.5 cm around the cavity by up to a factor of 1.3 and 1.4 for PRESAGE and Fricke-type dosimeters respectively.


PRESAGE and Fricke-type dosimeters are able to qualitatively measure the ERE with good agreement with previously published simulation and 2D dosimetry demonstrations of the ERE. Further investigation of these 3D dosimeters as promising candidates for quality assurance of MR-guided radiation therapy systems is encouraged to assess changes in response and measurement accuracy due to the magnetic field.