TH-AB-202-09: Direct-Aperture Optimization for Combined MV+kV Dose Planning in Fluoroscopic Real-Time Tumor-Tracking Radiation Therapy




Real-time kV fluoroscopic tumor tracking has the benefit of direct tumor position monitoring. However, there is clinical concern over the excess kV imaging dose cost to the patient when imaging in continuous fluoroscopic mode. This work addresses this specific issue by proposing a combined MV+kV direct-aperture optimization (DAO) approach to integrate the kV imaging beam into a treatment planning such that the kV radiation is considered as a contributor to the overall dose delivery.


The combined MV+kV DAO approach includes three algorithms. First, a projected Quasi-Newton algorithm (L-BFGS) is used to find optimized fluence with MV+kV dose for the best possible dose distribution. Then, Engel's algorithm is applied to optimize the total number of monitor units and heuristically optimize the number of apertures. Finally, an aperture shape optimization (ASO) algorithm is applied to locally optimize the leaf positions of MLC.


Compared to conventional DAO MV plans with continuous kV fluoroscopic tracking, combined MV+kV DAO plan leads to a reduction in the total number of MV monitor units due to inclusion of kV dose as part of the PTV, and was also found to reduce the mean and maximum doses on the organs at risk (OAR). Compared to conventional DAO MV plan without kV tracking, the OAR dose in the combined MV+kV DAO plan was only slightly higher. DVH curves show that combined MV+kV DAO plan provided about the same PTV coverage as that in the conventional DAO plans without kV imaging.


We report a combined MV+kV DAO approach that allows real time kV imager tumor tracking with only a trivial increasing on the OAR doses while providing the same coverage to PTV. The approach is suitable for clinic implementation.