TH-CD-206-08: An Anthropopathic Deformable Phantom for Geometric and Dose Accumulation Accuracy Validation of Deformable Image Registration




To design and construct a three-dimensional (3D) anthropopathic abdominal phantom for evaluating deformable image registration (DIR) accuracy on images and dose deformation in adaptive radiation therapy (ART).


Organ moulds, including liver, kidney, spleen, stomach, vertebra and two metastasis tumors, are 3D printed using the contours from an ovarian cancer patient. The organ moulds are molded with deformable gels that made of different mixtures of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and the softener dioctyl terephthalate. Gels with different densities are obtained by a polynomial fitting curve which describes the relation between the CT number and PVC-softener blending ratio. The rigid vertebras are constructed by moulding with white cement. The final abdominal phantom is assembled by arranging all the fabricated organs inside a hollow dummy according to their anatomies and sealed with deformable gel with averaged CT number of muscle and fat. Geometric and dosimetric landmarks are embedded inside the phantom for spatial accuracy and dose accumulation accuracy studies. Three DIR algorithms available in the open source DIR toolkit-DIRART, including the Demons, the Horn-Schunck and Lucas-Kanade method and the Level-Set Motion method, are tested using the constructed phantom.


Viscoelastic behavior is observed in the constructed deformable gel, which serves as an ideal material for the deformable phantom. The constructed abdominal phantom consists of highly realistic anatomy and the fabricated organs inside have close CT number to its reference patient. DIR accuracy studies conducted on the constructed phantom using three DIR approaches indicate that geometric accuracy of a DIR algorithm has achieved does not guarantee accuracy in dose accumulation.


We have designed and constructed an anthropopathic abdominal deformable phantom with satisfactory elastic property, realistic organ density and anatomy. This physical phantom is recyclable and can be used for routine validations of DIR geometric accuracy and dose accumulation accuracy in ART.

This work is supported in part by grant from VARIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS INC, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no 81428019 and no 81301940), the Guangdong Natural Science Foundation (2015A030313302) and the 2015 Pearl River S&T Nova Program of Guangzhou (201506010096).