A noninvasive assay for the spatial distribution of the percentage cellularity in human bone marrow is presented. Twelve individuals were studied using two magnetic resonance imaging techniques: (1) fast spin echo imaging with frequency selective presaturation, and (2) three-point chemical shift imaging. The data were compared to results obtained using a previously validated stimulated echo spectroscopic method. The results of this study demonstrate that a measure of the percentage cellularity in bone marrow is possible using magnetic resonance imaging techniques provided that high-quality water or lipid suppression is achieved across the region of interest. Since the method is applicable to bone marrow at any anatomic location, it may prove useful in dosimetric calculations during and after a course of internal or external beam radiotherapy.