• BUWAL (Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Land–schaft). 1996. Economic Inventory of Packaging Database (also known as BUWAL 250). Zurich : Swiss Federal Office of Environment, Forests and Landscape and the Swiss Packaging Institute.
  • Census Bureau 2002. 2000 E–commerce multi–sector report. Washington DC : U.S. Census Bureau. www.census.goveoswwwebusiness614.htm. Accessed 5 September 2002.
  • EDMC (Energy Data and Modeling Center). 2001. Enerugii Keizai Toukei Youran. [EDMC handbook of energy and economic statistics (in Japanese).] Tokyo : Energy Conservation Center.
  • Funazaki, A. and L. Taneda. 2000. Life cycle assessment of an end–of–life passenger car in 2002. In Proceedings of the fourth international conference on ecobalance. Tokyo : Society for Non–Traditional Technology.
  • Green Design Initiative. 2002. Economic input–output life cycle assessment. Pittsburgh : Carnegie Mellon University, Green Design Initiative. Accessed 5 September 2002.
  • Hayakawa, T. 2001. Shuppan shihyou nenpou. [Publishing indicators annual (in Japanese).] Tokyo : Publishing Research Institute, National Publishing Industry Association (Zenkoku Shuppan Kyoukai).
  • Matthews, H. S., C. Hendrickson, and D. L. Soh. 2001. Environmental and economic effects of e–commerce: A case study of book publishing and retail logistics. Transportation Research Record 1763: 612.
  • Matthews, H. S., E. Williams, T. Tagami, and C. Hendrickson. 2002. Energy implications of online book retailing in the United States and Japan. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 22: 493507.
  • MCC (Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation). 1993. Environmental consciousness: A strategic competitiveness issue for the electronics and computer industry. Austin , TX : MCC.
  • Ministry of Transport. 2000. Unyu kankei enerugii youran. [The survey on transport energy (in Japanese).] Tokyo : Ministry of Transport.
  • Miyamoto, S., M. Tekawa, and A. Inaba. 1998. Life cycle assessment of personal computers for the purpose of design for environment (in Japanese). Energy and Resources 19(1): 7580.
  • MLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport). 2001. Jidousha unsou toukei nenpou, 2000. [Truck shipping statistics annual, 2000 (in Japanese).] Tokyo : Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport.
  • Nagasu, H. 2000. Life cycle inventory analysis for a truck. In Proceedings of the fourth international conference on ecobalance. Tokyo : Society for Non–Traditional Technology.
  • ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory). 1995. 1995 NPTS databook. Document no. ORNL/TM–2001/248. Oak Ridge , TN : ORNL.
  • ORNL. 2002. 1995 NPTS analysis. Oak Ridge , TN : ORNL. wwwcta.ornl.govnpts1995docindex.shtml. Accessed 8 September 2002.
  • Peereboom, E., R. Kleijn, S. Lemkowitz, and S. Lundie. 1999. Influence of inventory data sets on lifecycle assessment results: A case study on PVC. Journal of Industrial Ecology 2(3): 109130.
  • Reichling, M. and T. Otto. 2002. The environmental impact of the new economy: Deutsche Telekom, telecommunications services and the sustainable future. In Ecology of the new economy, edited by J.Park and N.Roome. Sheffield , UK : Greenleaf Publishing.
  • Reijnders, L. and M. J. Hoogeveen. 2001. Energy effects associated with e–commerce: A case study concerning online sales of personal computers in the Netherlands. Journal of Environmental Management 62(3): 271282.
  • Romm, J., A. Rosenfeld, and S. Herrman. 1999. The Internet economy and global warming. Annandale , VA : The Center for Energy and Climate Solutions. www.coolcompanies.orgenergy. Accessed 8 September 2002.
  • Seven–Eleven. 2000. Sebun irebun no yokogao. [Profile of Seven–Eleven (in Japanese).] Tokyo : Seven–Eleven Japan.
  • Shigen Enerugii Seisakuka. 2001. Sougou enerugii toukei. [Integrated energy statistics (in Japanese).] Tokyo : Shigen Enerugii Choukan Kanbou Sougou Seisakuka.
  • Smulders, C. 2001. Watching Rome burn: PC empires threatened by extending life cycles. Doc. AV–14- 1972. Stamford , CT : Gartner.
  • Statistics Bureau. 1998. 1998 national survey of family income and expenditure. Tokyo : Statistics Bureau, Management and Coordination Agency, Government of Japan.
  • Tohan. 2001. Yoku wakaru shuppanryuutsuu no shikumi. [Introduction to the Distribution System for Books (in Japanese).] Tokyo : Tohan.
  • U.S. DOE/EIA (U.S. DepartmentofEnergy/EnergyInformation Administration). 1994. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994. Document DOE/ EIA–0464(94). Washington , DC : Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy.
  • Williams, E. and T. Tagami. 2001. Energy analysis of e–commerce and conventional retail distribution of books in Japan. In Sustainability in the Information Society, edited by L.Hilty and P.Gilgen. Marburg , Germany : Metropolis Verlag.