• agricultural residues;
  • biofuels;
  • biomass;
  • E85;
  • life-cycle assessment (LCA);
  • soil organic carbon (SOC)


Corn stover is the residue that is left behind after corn grain harvest. We have constructed a life-cycle model that describes collecting corn stover in the state of Iowa, in the Midwest of the United States, for the production and use of a fuel mixture consisting of 85% ethanol/15% gasoline (known as “E85”) in a flexible-fuel light-duty vehicle. The model incorporates results from individual models for soil carbon dynamics, soil erosion, agronomics of stover collection and transport, and biocon-version of stover to ethanol.

Limitations in available data forced us to focus on a scenario that assumes all farmers in the state of Iowa switch from their current cropping and tilling practices to continuous production of corn and “no-till” practices. Under these conditions, which maximize the amount of collectible stover, Iowa alone could produce almost 8 billion liters per year of pure stover-derived ethanol (E100) at prices competitive with today's corn-starch-derived fuel ethanol. Soil organic matter, an important indicator of soil health, drops slightly in the early years of stover collection but remains stable over the 90-year time frame studied. Soil erosion is controlled at levels within tolerable soil-loss limits established for each county in Iowa by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

We find that, for each kilometer fueled by the ethanol portion of E85, the vehicle uses 95% less petroleum compared to a kilometer driven in the same vehicle on gasoline. Total fossil energy use (coal, oil, and natural gas) and greenhouse gas emissions (fossil CO2, N2O, and CH4) on a life-cycle basis are 102% and 113% lower, respectively. Air quality impacts are mixed, with emissions of CO, NOx, and SOx increasing, whereas hydrocarbon ozone precursors are reduced.

This model can serve as a platform for future discussion and analysis of possible scenarios for the sustainable production of transportation fuels from corn stover and other agricultural residues.