Service Sector Metabolism: Accounting for Energy Impacts of the Montjuic Urban Park in Barcelona

Authors

  • Jordi Oliver-Solà,

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    • Jordi Oliver-Solà is currently doctoral research students in Environmental Sciences at the Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB).

  • Montserrat Núñez,

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    • Jordi Oliver-Solà is currently doctoral research students in Environmental Sciences at the Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB).

  • Xavier Gabarrell,

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    • Jordi Oliver-Solà is currently doctoral research students in Environmental Sciences at the Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB).

  • Martí Boada,

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    • Jordi Oliver-Solà is currently doctoral research students in Environmental Sciences at the Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB).

  • Joan Rieradevall

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    • Jordi Oliver-Solà is currently doctoral research students in Environmental Sciences at the Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB).


  • Montserrat Núñez are currently doctoral research students in Environmental Sciences at the Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB).

  • Xavier Gabarrell hold Ph.D.s in the chemical sciences and are both professors at the Chemical Engineering Department (UAB) and senior researchers at ICTA. These four authors belong to the SosteniPrA Research group.

  • Martí Boada holds a Ph.D. in Environmental Sciences and is a professor in the Geography Department (UAB) and a senior researcher at ICTA.

  • Joan Rieradevall hold Ph.D.s in the chemical sciences and are both professors at the Chemical Engineering Department (UAB) and senior researchers at ICTA. These four authors belong to the SosteniPrA Research group.

Jordi Oliver-Solà, Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Edifici Cn Campus de la UAB 08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain <jordi.oliver@uab.cat> <www.sostenipra.cat>

Abstract

This article evaluates, from an industrial ecology (IE) perspective, the energy performance of the services inside an urban system and determines their global environmental impact. Additionally, this study determines which are the most energy demanding services and the efficiency of their energy use per visitor and per surface area unit.

The urban system under study is the Montjuïc urban park in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, which can be considered a services system. In this case study we distinguished the different patterns of consumption among the service fields and, by studying each field individually, found the most efficient facilities and identified the most critical services based on energy use per visitor or per square meter. These findings are based on the use of energy flow accounting (EFA), life-cycle assessment (LCA), and the energy footprint to analyze the Park's technical energy consumption.

Electricity consumption represents nearly 70% of the total energy consumed by the services at Montjuïc Park. The forest surface area required to absorb the CO2-equivalent emissions produced by the life cycle of the energy consumed at Montjuïc Park represents 12.2 times the Park's surface area. We conclude this article by proposing the incorporation of the methods of IE within the study of parks containing multiple services to improve energy management, and as a result, to raise the global environmental performance of the service sector.

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