• Parkinson's disease (PD);
  • parkinsonism;
  • manganese;
  • features;
  • clinical;
  • imaging;
  • pathologic;
  • levodopa

Abstract: It has long been appreciated that manganese exposure can cause neurotoxicity and a neurologic syndrome that resembles Parkinson's disease (PD). Current evidence indicates that manganese-induced parkinsonism can be differentiated from PD because of its predilection to accumulate in and damage the pallidum and striatum rather than the SNc. The clinical syndrome, response to levodopa, imaging studies with MRI and PET, and pathologic features all help to distinguish these two conditions and permit the correct diagnosis to be established. This is of particular relevance in differentiating patients with parkinsonism due to manganese intoxication from patients with idiopathic PD who have incidental manganese exposure.