Abstract: HOX genes are a family of regulatory molecules that encode conserved transcription factors controlling aspects of morphogenesis and cell differentiation during normal embryonic development. All metazoans possess a common genetic system for embryonic patterning, and this system is also used in the reproductive tract. Hox genes are also expressed in the adult uterus. Hox genes are essential both for the development of müllerian tract in the embryonic period and adult function. Sex steroids regulate Hox gene expression during embryonic and endometrial development in the menstrual cycle. EMX2 and β3-integrin acting downstream of Hoxa10 gene are likely involved in both these developmental processes. This article reviews the role and molecular regulation of Hox genes in reproductive tract development.