The Vaccinia Virus N1L Protein Influences Cytokine Secretion in Vitro after Infection

Authors

  • ZHOUNING ZHANG,

    1. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville, School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA
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  • MELISSA-ROSE ABRAHAMS,

    1. Division of Medical Virology, University of Cape Town Medical School, IIDMM, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa
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  • LAWRENCE A. HUNT,

    1. Division of Medical Virology, University of Cape Town Medical School, IIDMM, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa
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  • JILL SUTTLES,

    1. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville, School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA
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  • WILLIAM MARSHALL,

    1. Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts School of Medicine, Worchester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
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  • DEBOMOY K. LAHIRI,

    1. Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
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  • GIRISH J. KOTWAL

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville, School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA
    2. Division of Medical Virology, University of Cape Town Medical School, IIDMM, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa
    3. Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts School of Medicine, Worchester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
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Address for correspondence: Girish J. Kotwal, Division of Medical Virology, IIDMM, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town Medical School, Anzio Road, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa. Voice: +27-21-406-6676; fax: +27-21-406-6018; E-mail: gjkotw01@yahoo.com

Abstract

The vaccinia virus N1L ORF encodes a protein that enhances virulence and replication of the virus by an unknown mechanism. It has been studied for its ability to enhance viral replication and dissemination in the brain and more recently has been linked to an immunomodulatory role in which it inhibits the activation of cytokine transcription activators in Toll-like receptor signaling pathways after pathogen recognition. The effect of N1L on the release of cytokines from human primary monocytes was investigated. Secretion of the proinflammatory, antiviral cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-α, IFN-β, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was found to be inhibited by the presence of the N1L protein.

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