Abstract: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) transmit signals in response to Aspergillus fumigatus conidia and hyphae. In this preliminary study, we examined the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR1, TLR4, and TLR6 genes and development of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in 127 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients consisting of 22 patients with IA and 105 unaffected control subjects. The following SNPs and their pairwise interactions were considered in the model: TLR1 (239G > C, 743A > G, 914A > T, 1805G > T), TLR4 (896A > G, 1196C > T), and TLR6 (359T > C, 745C > T, 764C > T). No association was found between donor SNP and the risk of IA. Analysis of recipient SNP data showed that the presence of TLR1 239G > C (Arg80 > Thr) or the presence of both TLR1 743A > G (Asn248 > Ser) and TLR6 745C > T (Ser249 > Pro) is associated with IA (odds ratio = 1.30, 95% confidence interval = 1.13 to 1.50; P < .001). Further analyses using a prospective cohort may enable us to identify TLR polymorphisms associated with the susceptibility to IA within a defined interval among immunocompromised patients.