• rickettsia;
  • rickettsioses;
  • tick;
  • flea;
  • louse;
  • Europe

Abstract: In Europe, rickettsioses are long-known infectious diseases. Until recently, it was thought that Mediterranean spotted fever due to Rickettsia conorii was the only tick-borne rickettsiosis in Europe. In the last decade new Rickettsia spp. have been implicated in human pathology (R. slovaca, R. sibirica mongolotimonae, R. helvetica). Furthermore, cases of infection due to flea-borne rickettsioses (R. typhi, R. felis) have been described. Finally, although no outbreak of epidemic typhus has been reported yet in central and southern Europe, we should be aware of the possibility of reemergence of this disease in Europe. Other rickettsioses exist that have not yet been implicated in human pathology. We should consider that climate changes and other factors could contribute to the emergence and reemergence of other new diseases.