Abstract: We analyzed double native insulin gene knockout NOD mice with a mutated (B16:alanine) proinsulin transgene at multiple ages for the development of insulin autoantibodies, insulitis, and diabetes. In contrast to mice with at least one copy of a native insulin gene that expressed insulin antibodies, only 2 out of 21 (10%) double native insulin gene knockout mice with a mutated insulin transgene developed insulin autoantibodies. Of 21 double insulin knockout mice sacrificed between 10 to 48 weeks of age, only 5 showed minimal insulitis versus 100% of wild-type NOD and more than 90% of insulin 1 knockout mice. Consistent with robust suppression of insulin autoantibodies and insulitis, no double insulin knockout mice developed diabetes. In that the B9–23 peptide with B16A is an altered peptide ligand inducing Th2 responses, we analyzed transfer of splenocytes into NOD.SCID mice. There was no evidence for regulatory T cells able to inhibit transfer of diabetes by diabetogenic NOD splenocytes. Insulin peptide B9–23 is likely a crucial target for initiation of islet autoimmunity and further mutation of the sequence will be tested to attempt to eliminate all anti-islet autoimmunity.