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The Inflammatory Reflex and the Role of Complementary and Alternative Medical Therapies

Authors


Address for correspondence: Kevin J. Tracey, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore-LIJ Health System, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY 11030. Voice: +516-562-2813; fax: +516-562-2356. kjtracey@nshs.edu

Abstract

The body's first defense against invading pathogens or tissue injury is the innate immune system. Since excessive immune responses can be damaging, anti-inflammatory mechanisms function to control the pro-inflammatory response and prevent injury. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is a neural mechanism that suppresses the innate inflammatory response. Knowledge concerning innervation of the immune system offers a unique opportunity to explore previously unrecognized techniques to treat disease. It also enables consideration of the neurological basis of complementary and alternative medical therapies, such as meditation and acupuncture. This evolving area of research has implications for the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory conditions including inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes, and other conditions of excessive cytokine release.

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