Coccidioidomycosis in Persons Infected with HIV-1


Address for correspondence: Neil M. Ampel, M.D., Medical Service (1–111), SAVAHCS, 3601 S. Sixth Avenue, Tucson, Arizona 85723, USA. Voice: 520-792-1450, ext. 6186; fax 520-629-4793.


Abstract: Coccidioidomycosis is a recognized opportunistic infection in those with HIV-1 infection. The major risk factor is immunodeficiency, particularly when the peripheral blood CD4 T lymphocyte count is below 250/μL. There are many manifestations of coccidioidomycosis during HIV-1 infection, including diffuse, reticulonodular pneumonia, focal primary pneumonia, and disease disseminated beyond the thoracic cavity. Diagnosis is based on serology, culture and histopathologic identification. Two therapeutic modalities are currently available, the polyene antifungal amphotericin B and the triazole antifungals. Of the latter, the most experience is with the triazoles fluconazole and itraconazole. There are increasing data regarding drug interactions between triazoles and antiretroviral agents. The duration of treatment of coccidioidomycosis in those with HIV-1 infection is not established and in many patients it is either prolonged or life-long. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy is important in preventing recurrence.