SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    World Health Organization. 2002. STOP TB Annual Report 2001. World Health Organization. Geneva .
  • 2
    World Health Organization. 1997. WHO Report on the Tuberculosis Epidemic. World Health Organization. Geneva .
  • 3
    World Health Organization. 1999. Global Tuberculosis Control, WHO Report 1999. World Health Organization. Geneva .
  • 4
    Nardell, E. 1989. Tuberculosis in homeless, residential care facilities, prisons, nursing homes, and other close communities. Semin. Respir. Infect. 4: 206215.
  • 5
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1998. Recommendations for prevention and control of tuberculosis among foreign-born persons: report of the working group on tuberculosis among foreign-born persons. MMWR Recomm. Rep. 47(No. RR-16): 129.
  • 6
    Moore, M., E. McCray & I. Onorato. 1999. Cross matching TB and AIDS registries: TB patients with HIV coinfection, United States, 1993–1994. Public Health Rep. 114: 269277.
  • 7
    Murray, J. 1991. Tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus infections during the 1990s. Bull. Int. Union Tuberc. Lung Dis. 66: 2125.
  • 8
    Mitchison, D.A. & A.J. Nunn. 1986. Influence of initial drug resistance on the response to short-course chemotherapy of pulmonary tuberculosis. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 122: 423430.
  • 9
    Pablos-Mendez, A. et al . 2001. Global surveillance for antituberculosis-drug resistance, 1994–1997. World Health Organization – International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Working Group on anti-tuberculosis drug resistance surveillance. N. Engl. J. Med. 344: 12941303.
  • 10
    Neville, K. et al . 1994. The third epidemic—multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. Chest 105: 4548.
  • 11
    Blower, S., P. Small & P. Hopewell. 1996. Control strategies for tuberculosis epidemics: new models for old problems. Science 273: 497500.
  • 12
    Iseman, M.D. & M. Goble. 1996. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 334: 267.
  • 13
    Espinal, M.A. et al . 2000. Standard short-course chemotherapy for drug-resistant tuberculosis: treatment outcomes in 6 countries. JAMA 283: 25372545.
  • 14
    Cohen, T. & M. Murray. 2004. Modeling epidemics of multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis of heterogeneous fitness. Nat. Med. 10: 11171121.
  • 15
    Blower, S.M. & T. Chou. 2004. Modeling the emergence of the ‘hot zones’: tuberculosis and the amplification dynamics of drug resistance. Nat. Med. 10: 11111116.
  • 16
    Migliori, G.B. et al . 2000. Frequency of recurrence among MDR-TB cases ‘successfully’ treated with standardised short-course chemotherapy. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 6: 858864.
  • 17
    Frieden, T.R. et al . 1995. Tuberculosis in New York City—turning the tide. N. Engl. J. Med. 333: 229233.
  • 18
    Frieden, T.R. et al . 1996. A multi-institutional outbreak of highly drug-resistant tuberculosis: epidemiology and clinical outcomes. JAMA 276: 12291235.
  • 19
    Vailway, S. et al . 1994. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the New York state prison system, 1990–1991. J. Infect. Dis. 170: 151156.
  • 20
    Nardell, E. et al . 1986. Exogenous reinfection with tuberculosis in a shelter for the homeless. N. Engl. J. Med. 315: 15701573.
  • 21
    Beck-Sague, C. et al . 1992. Hospital outbreak of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections: factors in transmission to staff and HIV-infected patients. JAMA 268: 12801286.
  • 22
    Barnes, P. et al . 1996. Transmission of tuberculosis among the urban homeless. JAMA 275: 305307.
  • 23
    Pablos-Mendez, A. et al. 1990. Drug resistant tuberculosis among the homeless in New York City. N. Y. State J. Med. 90: 351355.
  • 24
    Kritski, A. et al . 1996. Transmission of tuberculosis to close contacts of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 153: 331335.
  • 25
    Rullán, J. et al. 1996. Nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Spain. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2: 125129.
  • 26
    Gandhi, N.R. et al . 2006. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis as a cause of death in patients co-infected with tuberculosis and HIV in a rural area of South Africa. Lancet 368: 15751580.
  • 27
    WHO. 2006. Case definition for extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 81: 408.
  • 28
    World Health Organization. 2000. Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in the world, report no. 2: The WHO/IUATLD global project on anti-tuberculosis drug resistance surveillance 2000. World Health Organization. Geneva .
  • 29
    Li, X. et al . 2007. Transmission of drug-resistant tuberculosis among treated patients in Shanghai, China. J. Infect. Dis. 195: 864869.
  • 30
    Zignol, M. et al . 2006. Global incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. J. Infect. Dis. 194: 479485.
  • 31
    Farmer, P.E. et al . 1997. Poverty, inequality, and drug resistance: meeting community needs. Proceedings of the Int. Union Tuberc. Lung Dis. North Am. Regional Conference 88102.
  • 32
    Farmer, P.E. et al . 1999. Recrudescent tuberculosis in the Russian Federation. In The Global Impact of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis. 3984. Harvard Medical School and Open Society Institute. Boston , MA .
  • 33
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1999. Primary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis—Ivanovo Oblast, Russia, 1999. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 48: 661663.
  • 34
    Coninx, R. et al . 1998. Drug resistant tuberculosis in prisons in Azerbaijan: case study. BMJ 316: 14231425.
  • 35
    Kimerling, M. et al . 1999. Inadequacy of the current WHO re-treatment regimen in a central Siberian prison: treatment failure and MDR-TB. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 3: 451453.
  • 36
    Seung, K.J. et al . 2004. The effect of initial drug resistance on treatment response and acquired drug resistance during standardized short-course chemotherapy for tuberculosis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39: 13211328.
  • 37
    Kim, J.Y. et al . 2003. From multidrug-resistant tuberculosis to DOTS expansion and beyond: making the most of a paradigm shift. Tuberculosis 83: 5965.
  • 38
    Iseman, M.D. 1998. MDR-TB and the developing world—a problem no longer to be ignored: the WHO announces ‘DOTS Plus’ strategy. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 2: 867.
  • 39
    World Health Organization. 2000. Guidelines for establishing DOTS-Plus pilot projects for the management of MDR-TB. R.Gupta & T.Arnadottir, Eds. 279. WHO. Publication WHO/CDS/TB/2000. Geneva , Switzerland .
  • 40
    Kochi, A. 1997. Tuberculosis control – is DOTS the health breakthrough of the 1990s? World Health Forum 18: 225232.
  • 41
    Farmer, P.E. & J.Y. Kim. 1998. Community based approaches to the control of multidrug resistant tuberculosis: introducing “DOTS-plus”. BMJ 317: 671674.
  • 42
    Coordination of DOTS-Plus pilot projects for the management of MDR-TB. 1999. WHO/CDS/CPC/TB/99.262. Geneva , Switzerland .
  • 43
    WHO. 2002. DOTS-Plus: Preliminary results and emerging issues. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Stop TB Working Group on DOTS-Plus for MDR-TB, Tallinn, Estonia, 10–12 April 2002. Geneva , Switzerland , 2002. WHO/CDS/TB/2002.307.
  • 44
    Gupta, R. et al . 2002. Increasing transparency in partnerships for health – introducing the Green Light Committee. Trop. Med. Int. Health 7: 970976.
  • 45
    Shin, S. et al . 2004. Community-based treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Lima, Peru: 7 years of experience. Soc. Sci. Med. 59: 15291539.
  • 46
    Mitnick C.D. et al . 2003. Community-based therapy for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in Lima, Peru. N. Engl. J. Med. 348: 12191228.
  • 47
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1990. Outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis—Texas, California, and Pennsylvania. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 39: 369373.
  • 48
    Iseman, M.D. et al . 1990. Surgical intervention in the treatment of pulmonary disease caused by drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 141: 623625.
  • 49
    Suarez, P.G. et al . Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of standardized second-line drug treatment for chronic tuberculosis patients: a national cohort study in Peru. Lancet 359: 19801989.
  • 50
    Farmer, P.E., J.J. Furin & S.S. Shin. 2000. Managing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. J. Respir. Dis. 21: 5356.
  • 51
    Park, S.K., C.T. Kim & S.D. Song. 1998. Outcome of chemotherapy in 107 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 2: 877884.
  • 52
    Telzak, E.E. et al . 1995. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in patients in patients without HIV infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 333: 907903.
  • 53
    Farmer, P.E. et al . 2000. Responding to outbreaks of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: introducing DOTS-Plus. In Tuberculosis: a comprehensive International Approach, 2nd edition. L.Reichman & E.S.Hershfield, Eds.: 447469. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York , NY .
  • 54
    Leimane, V. et al . 2005. Clinical outcome of individualised treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Latvia: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet 365: 318326.
  • 55
    World Health Organization. 2007. The Global MDR-TB & XDR-TB Response Plan 2006–2007. WHO. Geneva . Publication: WHO/HTM/TB/2007.387.
  • 56
    Vermiere, E. et al . 2001. Patient adherence to treatment: three decades of research. A comprehensive review. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther. 26: 331342.
  • 57
    Addington, W. 1997. Patient compliance: the most serious remaining problem in the control of tuberculosis in the United States. Chest 76: 741743.
  • 58
    Sumartojo, E. 1993. When tuberculosis treatment fails: a social behavioral account of patient adherence. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 147: 13111320.
  • 59
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1999. Primary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis—Ivanovo Oblast, Russia, 1999. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 48: 661663.
  • 60
    Raviglione, M.C. et al . 1994. Tuberculosis trends in eastern Europe and the former USSR. Tuber. Lung Dis. 75: 400416.
  • 61
    Kimerling, M.E. 2000. The Russian equation: an evolving paradigm in tuberculosis control. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 4(Suppl 2): S160S167.
  • 62
    Cockerham, W.C. 2007. Health lifestyles and the absence of the Russian middle class. Sociol. Health Illn. 29: 457473.
  • 63
    Notzon, F.C. et al . 1998. Causes of declining life expectancy in Russia. JAMA 279: 793800.
  • 64
    Liu, Y., K. Rao & J. Fei. 1998. Economic transition and health transition: comparing China and Russia. Health Policy 44: 103122.
  • 65
    Carlson, P. 2005. Relatively poor, absolutely ill? A study of regional income inequality in Russia and its possible health consequences. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 59: 389394.
  • 66
    Shkolnikov, V.M. et al . 1998. Educational level and adult mortality in Russia: an analysis of routine data 1979 to 1994. Soc. Sci. Med. 47: 357369.
  • 67
    Chenet, L. et al . 1998. Deaths from alcohol and violence in Moscow: socio-economic determinants. Eur. J. Popul. 14: 1937.
  • 68
    Plavinski, S.L., S.I. Plavinskaya & A.N. Klimov. 2003. Social factors and increase in mortality in Russia in the 1990s: prospective cohort study. BMJ 326: 12401242.
  • 69
    Murphy, M. et al . 2006. The widening gap in mortality by educational level in the Russian Federation, 1980–2001. Am. J. Public Health 96: 12931299.
  • 70
    Shkolnikov, V.M. et al . 2006. The changing relation between education and life expectancy in central and eastern Europe in the 1990s. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 60: 875881.
  • 71
    Bobak, M. et al . 1998. Socioeconomic factors, perceived control and self-reported health in Russia. A cross-sectional survey. Soc. Sci. Med. 47: 269279.
  • 72
    Rose, R. 2000. How much does social capital add to individual health? A survey study of Russians. Soc. Sci. Med. 51: 14211435.
  • 73
    McKeehan IV. 2000. A multilevel city health profile of Moscow. Soc. Sci. Med. 51: 12951312.
  • 74
    Bobak, M. et al . 2000 Socioeconomic factors, material inequalities, and perceived control in self-rated health: cross-sectional data from seven post-communist countries. Soc. Sci. Med. 51: 13431350.
  • 75
    Ciment, J. 1999. Health situation in former communist bloc is dire, says Unicef. BMJ 319: 1324.
  • 76
    Walberg, P. et al . 1998. Economic change, crime, and mortality crisis in Russia: regional analysis. BMJ 317: 312318.
  • 77
    Field, M.G., D.M. Kotz & G. Bukhman. 2000. Neoliberal economic policy, “state desertion”, and the Russian health crisis. In Dying for Growth: Global Inequality and the Health of the Poor. J.Y.Kim, J.V.Millen, J.Gershman & A.Irwin, Eds.: 155173 Common Courage Press. Monroe , ME .
  • 78
    Shilova, M.V. 2002. Tuberculosis in Russia in 2001. [In Russian]. Institute of Pthisio-pulmonology of the Sechenov Moscow Medical Academy. Moscow , Russia .
  • 79
    Perelman, M. 2000. Tuberculosis in Russia. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 4: 10971103.
  • 80
    The number of oblasts included in the Siberian region changed in 1999, making it difficult to compare the values in 2000 to those previously.
  • 81
    Dewan, P.K. et al . 2004. Risk factors for death during tuberculosis treatment in Orel, Russia. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 8: 598602.
  • 82
    McKee, M. & B. Jacobson. 2000. Public health in Europe. Lancet 356: 665670.
  • 83
    Drobniewski, F. 1995. Tuberculosis in prisons—forgotten plague. Lancet 346: 948949.
  • 84
    Portaels, F., L. Rigouts, & I. Bastian. 1999. Addressing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in penitentiary hospitals and in the general population of the former Soviet Union. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 3: 582588.
  • 85
    Public Health Research Institute Center. Key features of Russian TB epidemic. PHRI. http://www.russia.phri.org/tbinrussia.htm, Feb. 25, 2001.
  • 86
    Kimerling, M. 2000. The Russian equation: an evolving paradigm in tuberculosis control. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 4: 51605167.
  • 87
    Tanne, J.H. 1999. Drug resistant TB is spreading worldwide. BMJ 319: 1220.
  • 88
    Kimerling, M.E. et al . 2003. The risk of MDR-TB and polyresistant tuberculosis among the civilian population of Tomsk city, Siberia, 1999. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 7: 866872.
  • 89
    Slavuckij, A. et al . 2002. Decentralization of the DOTS program within a Russian penitentiary system: how to ensure the continuity of tuberculosis treatment in pre-trial detention centers. Eur. J. Public Health 12: 9498.
  • 90
    Coker, R.J., R.A. Atun & M. McKee. 2004. Health-care system frailties and public health control of communicable disease on the European Union's new eastern border. Lancet 363: 13891392.
  • 91
    Coker, R.J. et al . 2005. Health system frailties in tuberculosis service provision in Russia: an analysis through the lens of formal nutritional support. Public Health 119: 837843.
  • 92
    Atun, R.A. et al . 2005. Social factors influencing hospital utilisation by tuberculosis patients in the Russian Federation: analysis of routinely collected data. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 9: 11401146.
  • 93
    Gelmanova, I.Y. et al . 2007. Barriers to successful tuberculosis treatment in Tomsk, Russia; non-adherence, default, and the acquisition of multi-drug resistance. Bull. WHO 85(9): 703711.
  • 94
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Major TB guidelines. http://www.cdc.gov/tb/pubs/mmwr/Maj_guide/cdc_ats_guidelines.htm.
  • 95
    Drobniewski, F. et al . 1996. Tuberculosis in Siberia: 2. Diagnosis, chemoprophylaxis and treatment. Tuber. Lung Dis. 77: 297301.
  • 96
    Drobniewski, F. et al . 1996. Tuberculosis in Siberia: 1. An epidemiological and microbiological assessment. Tuber. Lung Dis. 77: 199206.
  • 97
    Bonnet, M. et al . 2005. Does one size fit all? Drug resistance and standard treatments: results of six tuberculosis programmes in former Soviet countries. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 9: 11471154.
  • 98
    Ruohonen, R.P. et al . 2002. Implementation of the DOTS strategy for tuberculosis in the Leningrad Region, Russian Federation (1998–1999). Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 6: 192197.
  • 99
    Tomskoblkomstat. Yearly Statistical Brochure [In Russian], 2003.
  • 100
    Clowes, C.I. 1997. Tomsk Region Tuberculosis services; a review of services and management structures for treatment of tuberculosis in the Tomsk Region of Siberia. MERLIN. London . Cited in: Mawer C, Ignatenko NV, Wares DF, Strelis AK, Golubchikova VT, Yanova GV, Lyagoshina TV, Sharaburova OE, Banatvala N. Comparison of the effictiveness of WHO short-course chemotherapy and standard Russian antituberculous regimens in Tomsk, western Siberia. The Lancet, August 11, 2001; Vol 358, 445–449.
  • 101
    Tomsk Oblast Tuberculosis Services , Tomsk , Russian Federation , July 2005.
  • 102
    Tomsk Oblast Penitentiary Tuberculosis Services , Tomsk , Russian Federation , July 2005.
  • 103
    Ministry of Health, Russian Federation. 2003. Prikaz of 21 March, 2003, No. 109: On improving anti-tuberculosis activities in the Russian Federation [In Russian]. Moscow, March 21.
  • 104
    Tomsk TB Registry. 2007. Referred to in: Tomsk Oblast Tuberculosis Services. Round 7 application to the Global Fund to fight AIDS, TB and Malaria, June.
  • 105
    Shin, S.S. et al . 2006. Treatment outcomes in an Integrated Civilian and Prison Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis Treatment Program in Russia. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 10: 402408.
  • 106
    Tahaoğlu, K. et al . 2001. The treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Turkey. N. Engl. J. Med. 345: 170174.
  • 107
    Chan, E. et al . 2004. Treatment and outcome analysis of 205 patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 169: 11031109.
  • 108
    Leimane, V. et al . 2005. Clinical outcome of individualized treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Latvia: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet 365: 318326.
  • 109
    Neville, K. et al . 1994. The third epidemic – multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Chest 105: 4548.
  • 110
    Shin, S. 2007. Extensively Resistant Tuberculosis (XDR-TB): Management and outcomes: Peru and Tomsk. Presented at the American Society for Microbiology 107th General Meeting. Toronto: May 2007.
  • 111
    Behforouz, H.L., P.E. Farmer & J.S. Mukherjee. 2004. From directly observed therapy to accompagnateurs: Enhancing AIDS treatment outcomes in Haiti and in Boston. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38: S429S436.
  • 112
    Farmer, P.E., B. Nizeye, S. Stulac, et al . 2006. Structural Violence and Clinical Medicine. PLoS Med. 3: 16861691.
  • 113
    Partners In Health , Russia . June 2007.
  • 114
    Sterling, T.R., H.P. Lehmann & T.R. Frieden. 2003. Impact of DOTS compared with DOTS-Plus on multidrug resistant tuberculosis and tuberculosis deaths: decision analysis. BMJ 326: 574.
  • 115
    Coker, R. 2002. Should tuberculosis programmes invest in second-line treatments for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)? Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 6: 649650.
  • 116
    Pilote, L. et al . 1996. Tuberculosis prophylaxis in the homeless: a trial to improve adherence to referral. Arch. Intern. Med. 156: 161165.
  • 117
    Malotte, C.K., F. Rhodes & K.E. Mais. 1998. Tuberculosis screening and compliance with return for skin test reading among active drug users. Am. J. Public Health 88: 792796.