Animal trypanosomosis is one of the most severe constraints to agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa and is also an important disease of livestock in Latin America and Asia. The causative agents are various species of protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Trypanosoma, among which T. congolense and T. evansi are the major pathogenic species. The extracellular position of trypanosomes obliges us to consider both the parasite and its excreted/secreted factors in the course of the physiopathologic process. The advent of proteomics led us to propose a comparative approach of the proteome (i.e., the whole parasite content) and the secretome (i.e., naturally excreted/secreted molecules) of T. congolense and T. evansi with particular attention to common and specific molecules between strains of differing virulence and pathogenicity. The molecular identification of differentially expressed trypanosome molecules correlated with either the virulence process or the pathogenicity will provide new potential molecular targets for improved field diagnosis and chemotherapy of animal trypanosomosis.