Red/Near-infrared Boron–Dipyrromethene Dyes as Strongly Emitting Fluorophores


Address for correspondence: Ana B. Descalzo and Knut Rurack, Division I.5, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Richard-Willstätter-Str. 11, 12489 Berlin-Adlershof, Germany. Fax: 49(30)-8104-5005.,


We present an overview of the state of the art in long-wavelength boron–dipyrromethene (BODIPY) fluorophores, focusing on strategies to shift the absorption and emission bands into the red/near-infrared (NIR) range of the spectrum. This report also discusses chemical modifications of the chromophoric core to obtain analyte-responsive fluorophores, including examples of pH and metal ion indicators. Finally, we present a new series of phenanthrene-fused BODIPY dyes, emitting with high efficiency in the red/NIR region of the spectrum, as well as discussing potential applications thereof as probes.