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Two-photon Excitation Fluorescence Bioassays


Address for correspondence: Pekka Hänninen, Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Laboratory of Biophysics, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland.


Application of two-photon excitation of fluorescence in microscopy is one of the major discoveries of the “renaissance” of light microscopy that started in the 1980s. The technique derives its advantages from the biologically “smooth” wavelength of the excitation light and the confinement of the excitation. Difficult, and seemingly nontransparent, samples may be imaged with the technique with good resolution. Although the bioresearch has been concentrating mostly on the positive properties of the technique for imaging, the same properties may be applied successfully to nonimaging bioassays. This article focuses on the development path of two-photon excitation–based assay system.