• clinical study;
  • CML;
  • acrylamide;
  • HMF;
  • adults

The study of the health impact of dietary Maillard products (MPs) in realistic clinical studies requires the design of nutritionally equivalent diets with high and low levels of MPs. This difficult challenge may be achieved by setting the high-MP diet at the regular daily level, where the common use of grilling, frying, and roasting processes allows significant amounts of carboxymethyllysine, hydroxymethylfurfural and acrylamide to be formed. In such conditions, we show that major lipid degradation does not occur, nor does degradation of vitamin E or thiamine. Based on this finding, the low-MP diet; must be constructed accordingly, by replacing all high-temperature techniques with steam cooking or the absence of cooking. The cooking fat must be replaced with similar raw fat as seasoning in the low-MP diet, the high caloric density resulting from water loss in the high-MP diet must be compensated by higher food quantities offered in the low-MP diet, and the vitamin loss in fruit and vegetables resulting from high temperatures in the high-MP diet can be circumvented by increasing the corresponding portion size. In the ICARE study, equilibrated diets were proposed, fulfilling all nutritional needs, but with a 3- to 45-fold difference in MP concentrations. Individual quantification of nutritional and MP intakes will ensure the nutritional equivalence of the two diets and allow for quantification of the specific impact of ingested MPs.