Hemispatial neglect (HSN) is a frequent, conspicuous neurobehavioral accompaniment of brain injury. Patients with HSN share several superficial similarities, leading earlier clinical neuroscientists to view neglect as a unitary condition associated with brain structures that mediate relatively discrete spatial cognitive mechanisms. Over the last two decades, research largely deconstructed the neglect syndrome, revealing a remarkable heterogeneity of behaviors and providing insight into multiple component processes, both spatial and nonspatial, that contribute to hemispatial neglect. This review surveys visual HSN, presenting first the means for detection and diagnosis in its manifold variations. We summarize cognitive operations relevant to spatial attention and evidence for their role in neglect behaviors and then briefly consider neural systems that may subserve the component processes. Finally, we propose several methods for rehabilitating HSN, including the challenges facing remediation of such a heterogeneous cognitive disorder.