• Donabedian, A The quality of care. How can it be assessed? JAMA. 1988; 260:17438.
  • James, B. Quality Management for Health Care Delivery. Chicago , IL : Hospital Research Education Trust, 1989.
  • James, B. Information systems concepts for quality management. Med Care. 2002; 40:in press.
  • Spaite, DW, Bartholomeaux, F, Guisto, J et al. Rapid process redesign in a university-based emergency department: decreasing waiting time intervals and improving patient satisfaction. Ann Emerg Med. 2002; 39:16877.
  • Fernandes, CM, Christenson, JM, Price, A. Continuous quality improvement reduces length of stay for fast-track patients in an emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 1996;3:25863.
  • Schriger, DL, Baraff, LJ, Fink, A. A comparison of implicit and explicit methods of process quality assurance for blunt trauma patients. Ann Emerg Med. 1990; 19:73640.
  • Gratton, MC, Salomone, JA 3rd , Watson, WA. Clinically significant radiograph misinterpretations at an emergency medicine residency program. Ann Emerg Med. 1990; 19:497502.
  • Kuhn, M, Morgan, MT, Hoffman, JR. Quality assurance in the emergency department: evaluation of the ECG review process. Ann Emerg Med. 1992; 21:105.
  • Aronsky, D, Kendall, D, Merkley, K, James, BC, Haug, PJ. A comprehensive set of coded chief complaints for the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med 2001; 8:9809.
  • Overton, DT. Turning quality-related activities into quality research. Acad Emerg Med. 1995;2:13943.
  • Fernandes, CM. A match made in heaven? Quality-related activities and quality research. Acad Emerg Med. 1999;6:1656.
  • Schwab, RA. Baby steps. Ann Emerg Med. 1999; 34:3689.
  • VanRooyen, MJ, Grabowski, JG, Ghidorzi, AJ, Dey, C, Strange, GR. The perceived effectiveness of total quality management as a tool for quality improvement in emergency medicine. Acad Emerg Med 1999; 6:8116.
  • Trout, A, Magnusson, AR, Hedges. Patient satisfaction investigations and the emergency department: what does the literature say? Acad Emerg Med. 2000; 7:695709.
  • Benko, LK. Shedding few tiers: controversial plans are here to stay, insurers say. Mod Healthcare. 2002;32(2): 17.
  • Chellis, M, Olson, J, Augustine, J, Hamilton, G. Evaluation of missed diagnoses for patients admitted from the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2001; 8:12530.
  • Stout, JL. System status management. The strategy of ambulance placement. J Emerg Med Serv. 1983;8(5): 2232.
  • Deming, WE A system of profound knowledge. In: The New Economics, second edition. Cambridge , MA : MIT Press, 1993.
  • Kusterbeck, S. Boost quality of care: track medication use. ED Manage. 2001; 13(10): 1123.
  • Stevens, C. Measuring and improving quality in emergency medicine. St Louis , MO : Presented at AEM Consensus Conference, May 18 2002.
  • Wysocki, B. Doctor prescribes quality control for medicine's ills. Wall Street J. May 30, 2002: 1.