SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Acerbo, M. J., Gargiulo, P. A., Krug, I., & Delius, J. D. (2002). Behavioural consequences of nucleus accumbens dopaminergic stimulation and glutamatergic blocking in pigeons. Behavioral Brain Research, 136, 171177.
  • Alameda, J. R., Cuetos, F., & Brysbaert, M. (2003). The number 747 is named faster after seeing Boeing than after seeing Levi's: Associative priming in the processing of multidigit Arabic numerals. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A, 56, 10091019.
  • Alexander, G. E., DeLong, M. R., & Strick, P. L. (1986). Parallel organization of functionally segregated circuits linking basal ganglia and cortex. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 9, 357381.
  • Anetil, M., Hurtubise, P., Gillis, M-A. (2002). Tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine-hydroxylase immunoreactions in th cnidarian Renilla koellikeri. Cell Tissue Research, 310, 109117.
  • Anderson, H., Braestrup, C., & Randrup, A. (1975). Apomorphine-induced stereotyped biting in the tortoise in relation to dopaminergic mechanisms. Brain Behavior and Evolution, 11, 365373.
  • Ashby, G., Isen, A., & Turken, U. (1999). A neuropsychological theory of positive affect and its influence on cognition. Psychological Review, 106, 529550.
  • Bainton R. J., Tsai, L. T. Y., Singh, C. M., Moore, M. S., Neckameyer, W. S., & Heberlein, U. (2000). Dopamine modulates acute responses to cocaine, nicotine, and ethanol in Drosophila. Current Biology, 10, 187194.
  • Bamford, N. S., Zhang, H., Schmitz, Y., Wu, N. P., Cepeda, C., Levine, M. S., et al. (2004). Heterosynaptic dopamine neurotransmission selects sets of corticostriatal terminals. Neuron, 42, 653663.
  • Barrett, S. L., Bell, R., Watson, D., & King D. J. (2004). Effects of amisulpride, risperidone and chlorpromazine on auditory and visual latent inhibition, prepulse inhibition, executive function and eye movements in healthy volunteers. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 18, 156172.
  • Baumann, O., Dames, P., Kühnel, D., & Walz, B. (2002). Distribution of serotonergic and dopaminergic nerve fibers in the salivary gland complex of the cockroach Periplaneta americana. BMC Physiology, 2, 9.
  • Bell, W. J. (1991). Searching behavior: The behavioral ecology of finding resources. New York : Chapman & Hall.
  • Benedix, J. H. (1993). Area-restricted search by the plains pocket gopher (Geomys bursarius) in tallgrass prairie habitat. Behavioral Ecology, 4, 318324.
  • Berke, J. D., & Hyman S. E. (2000). Addiction, dopamine, and the molecular mechanisms of memory. Neuron, 25, 515532.
  • Berns, G. S., McClure, S. M., Pagnoni, G., & Montague, P. R. (2001). Predictability modulates human brain response to reward. Journal of Neuroscience, 21, 27932798.
  • Bertolucci-D'Angio, M., Serrano, A., & Scatton, B. (1990). Differential effects of forced locomotion, tail-pinch, immobilization, and methyl-carboline carboxylate on extracellular 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels in the rat striatum, nucleus accumbens, and prefrontal cortex: An in vivo voltammetric study. Journal of Neurochemistry, 55, 12081215.
  • Betz, C., Mihalic, D., Pinto, M. E., & Raffa, R. B. (2000). Could a common biochemical mechanism underlie addictions Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 25(1), 1120.
  • Beversdorf, D. Q., Hughes, J. D., Steinberg, B. A., Lewis, L. A., & Heilman, K. M. (1999). Noradrenergic modulation of cognitive flexibility in problem solving. Neuroreport, 10, 27632767.
  • Blackburn, J. B., Pfaust, J. G., & Phillips, A. G. (1992). Dopamine functions in appetitive and defensive behaviors. Progress in Neurobiology, 39, 247279.
  • Blair, J. E., Ikeo, K., Gojobori, T., & Hedges S. B. (2002). The evolutionary position of nematodes. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 2, 7.
  • Bor, D., Duncan, J., Wiseman, R. J., & Owen, A. M. (2003). Encoding strategies dissociate prefrontal activity from working memory demand. Neuron, 37, 361367.
  • Braver, T. S., & Cohen, J. D. (2000). On the control of control: The rope of dopamine in regulating prefrontal function and working memory. In S. Monsell & J. Driver (Eds.), Control of cognitive processes (pp. 713737). Cambridge , MA : MIT Press.
  • Burroughs, W. (1977). Junky (1st complete and unexpurgated ed.). New York : Penguin.
  • Buxbaum-Conradi, H., & Ewert, J. P. (1999). Responses of single neurons in the toad's caudal ventral striatum to moving visual stimuli and test of their efferent projection by extracellular antidromic stimulation/recording techniques. Brain, Behavior, and Evolution, 54, 338354.
  • Callier, S., Snapyan, M., Prou, D., Vincent, J.-D., & Vernier, P. (2003). Evolution and cell biology of dopamine receptors. Biology of the Cell, 95, 489502.
  • Cardinal, R. N., Pennicott, D. R., Sugathapala, C. L., Robbins, T. W., & Everitt, B. J. (2001, May 24). Impulsive choice induced in rats by lesions of the nucleus accumbens core. Science, 292, 24992501.
  • Carelli, R. M. (2004). Nucleus accumbens cell firing and rapid dopamine signaling during goal-directed behaviors in rats. Neuropharmacology, 47, 180189.
  • Casagrand, J. L., & Ritzmann, R. E. (1992). Biogenic amines modulate synaptic transmission between identified giant interneurons and thoracic interneurons in the escape system of the cockroach. Journal of Neurobiology, 23, 644655.
  • Chalfie, M., Sulston, J. E., White, J. G., Southgate, E., Thomson, J. N., & Brenner, S. (1985). The neural circuit for touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Journal of Neuroscience, 5, 956964.
  • Chase, W. G., & Simon, H. A. (1973). Perception in chess. Cognitive Psychology, 4, 5581.
  • Chen, C., Burton, M., Greenberger, E., & Dmitrieva, J. (1999). Population migration and the variation of dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) allele frequencies around the globe. Evolution and Human Behavior, 20, 309324.
  • Claassen, D. E. & Kammer, A. E. (1986). Effects of octopamine, dopamine and serotonin on production of flight motor output by thoracic ganglia of Manduca sexta. Journal of Neurobiology, 17, 114.
  • Cleland, T. A., & Selverston A. I. (1997). Dopaminergic modulation of inhibitory glutamate receptors in the lobster stomatogastric ganglion. Journal of Neurophysiology, 78, 34503452.
  • Cohen, J. D., Perlstein, W. M., Braver, T. S., Nystrom, L. E., Noll, D. C., Jonides, J., et al. (1997, April 10). Temporal dynamics of brain activation during a working memory task. Nature, 386, 604608.
  • Collins, A. M., & Loftus, E. F. (1975). A spreading activation theory of semantic processing. Psychological Review, 82, 407428.
  • Cools, R., Clark, L., & Robbins, T. W. (2004). Differential responses in human striatum and prefrontal cortex to changes in object and rule relevance. Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 11291135.
  • Courtney, S. M., Ungerleider, L. G., Keil, K., & Haxby, J. V. (1997, April 10). Transient and sustained activity in a distributed neural system for human working memory. Nature, 386, 608611.
  • Crow, T. J. (1980). Molecular pathology of schizophrenia: More than one disease process British Medical Journal, 280, 6668.
  • Dagher, A., Owen, A. M., Boecker, H., & Brooks, D. J. (2001). The role of the striatum and hippocampus in planning. Brain, 124, 10201031.
  • Dani, J. A., & Zhou, F. (2004). Selective dopamine filter of glutamate striatal afferents. Neuron, 42, 522523.
  • Davidson, L. L., & Heinrichs R. W. (2003). Quantification of frontal and temporal lobe brain-imaging findings in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis. Psychiatry Research, 122(2), 6987.
  • Davis, K. L., Kahn, R. S., Ko, G., & Davidson, M. (1991). Dopamine in schizophrenia: A review and reconceptualization. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 14741486.
  • Davis, M., & Troupe, Q. (1990). The autobiography of Miles Davis. New York : Simon & Schuster.
  • Deakin, J. M., & Allard, R. (1991). Skilled memory in expert figure skaters. Memory and Cognition, 19(1), 7986.
  • Dehaene, S., & Changeux, J. P. (1992). The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Theoretical analysis and modeling in a neuronal network. Cerebral Cortex, 1, 6279.
  • DeLong, M. R. (1990). Primate models of movement disorders of basal ganglia origin. Trends in Neurosciences, 13, 281285.
  • Di Chiara, G., Bassareo, V., Fenu, S., De Luca, M. A., Spina, L., Cadoni, C., et al. (2004). Dopamine and drug addiction: The nucleus accumbens shell connection. Neuropharmacology, 47(Suppl. 1), 227241.
  • Ding, Y. C., Chi, H. C., Grady, D. L., Morishima, A., Kidd, J. R., Kidd, K. K., et al. (2002). Evidence of positive selection acting at the human dopamine receptor D4 gene locus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 99, 309314.
  • Due, M. R., Jing, J., & Klaudiusz, R. W. (2004). Dopaminergic contributions to modulatory functions of a dual-transmitter interneuron in Aplysia. Neuroscience Letters, 358, 5357.
  • Dum, R. P., & Strick, P. L. (1991). Premotor areas: Nodal points for parallel efferent systems involved in the central control of movement. In D. R. Humphrey & H.-J. Freund (Eds.), Motor control: Concepts and issues (pp. 383397). London : Wiley.
  • Durstewitz, D., Kelc, M., & Gunturkun, O. (1999). A neurocomputational theory of dopaminergic working memory functions. Journal of Neuroscience, 19, 28072822.
  • Dursun S. M., Wright N., & Reveley M. A. (1999). Effects of amphetamine on saccadic eye movements in man: Possible relevance to schizophrenia Journal of Psychopharmacology, 13, 245247.
  • Dyer, F. C. (1998). Cognitive ecology and navigation. In R. Ducas (Ed.), Cognitive ecology (pp. 201260). Chicago : University of Chicago Press.
  • Eichenbaum, H., & Cohen, N. J. (2001). From conditioning to conscious recollection: Memory systems of the brain. New York : Oxford University Press.
  • Elliott, C. J. H., & Vehovszky, A. (2000). Polycyclic neuromodulation of the feeding rhythm of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis by the intrinsic octopaminergic interneuron, OC. Brain Research, 887, 6369.
  • Ericcson, K. A., Chase, W. G., & Falloon, S. (1980). Acquisition of a memory skill. Science, 208, 11811182.
  • Evenden, J. L., Turpin, M., Oliver, L., & Jennings, C. (1993). Caffeine and nicotine improve visual tracking by rats: A comparison with amphetamine, cocaine and apomorphine. Psychopharmacology (Berlin), 110, 169176.
  • Faust, M. (1998). Obtaining evidence of language comprehension from sentence priming. In M. Beeman & C. Chiarello (Eds.), Right hemisphere language comprehension: Perspectives from cognitive neuroscience (pp. 161186). London : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Fienberg, A. A., Hiroi, N., Mermelstein, P. G., Song, W., Snyder, G. L., Nishi, A., et al. (1998, August 7). DARPP-32: Regulator of the efficacy of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Science, 281, 838842.
  • Fiorillo, C. D., Tobler, P. N., & Schultz, W. (2003, March 21). Discrete coding of reward probability and uncertainty by dopamine neurons. Science, 299, 18981902.
  • Fletcher, P. C., Fritch, C. D., & Rugg, M. D. (1997). The functional neuroanatomy of episodic memory. Trends in Neurosciences, 20, 213218.
  • Floresco, S. B., Braaksma, D. N., & Phillips, A. G. (1999). Involvement of the ventral pallidum in working memory tasks with or without a delay. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 877, 711716.
  • Floresco, S. B., Seamans, J. K., & Phillips, A. G. (1996). A selective role for dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of the rat in random foraging but not delayed spatial win-shift-based foraging. Behavioral Brain Research, 80, 161168.
  • Foltin, R. W. (2001). Effects of amphetamine, dexfenfluramine, diazepam, and other pharmacological and dietary manipulations on food “seeking” and “taking” behavior in non-human primates. Psychopharmacology (Berlin), 158, 2838.
  • Frith, U. (1989). Autism: Explaining the enigma. Oxford , England : Blackwell.
  • Fuster, J. M. (2001). The prefrontal cortex—An update: Time is of the essence. Neuron, 30, 319333.
  • Gabrieli, J. D., Poldrack, R. A., & Desmond, J. E. (1998). The role of the left prefrontal cortex in language and memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 95, 906913.
  • Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1987). Circuitry of primate prefrontal cortex and regulation of behavior by representational memory. In F. Plum, & V. B. Mountcastle (Eds.), The nervous system: Vol. V., Higher functions of the brain, Pt 1 (pp. 373417). Bethesda , MD : American Physiological Society.
  • Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1995). Cellular basis of working memory. Neuron, 14, 477485.
  • Goodale, M. A., & Milner, A. D. (1992). Separate visual pathways for perception and action. Trends in Neurosciences, 15, 2025.
  • Goodman, J., Zacny, J., Osman, A., Azzaro, A., & Donovan, C. (1983). Dopaminergic nature of feeding-induced behavioral stereotypies in stressed pigeons. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 18, 153158.
  • Graybiel, A. M., & Canales, J. J. (2001). The neurobiology of repetitive behaviors: Clues to the neurobiology of Tourette syndrome. In D. J. Cohen, C. G. Goetz, & J. Jankovic (Eds.), Tourette syndrome (pp. 123131). Philadelphia : Lippincott.
  • Greengard, P. (2001, November 2). The neurobiology of slow synaptic transmission. Science, 294, 10241030.
  • Greif, G. J., Lin, Y. J., Liu, J. C., & Freedman, J. E. (1995). Dopamine-modulated potassium channels on rat striatal neurons: Specific activation and cellular expression. Journal of Neuroscience, 15, 45334544.
  • Grillner, S., & Zanger, P. (1979). On the central generation of locomotion in the low spinal cat. Experimental Brain Research, 34, 241261.
  • Groves, P. M., Garcia-Munoz, M., Linder, J. C., Manley, M. S., Martone, M. E., & Young, S. J. (1995). Elements of the intrinsic organization and information processing in the neostriatum. In D. Grunbaum (1998). Using spatially explicit models to characterize foraging performance in heterogeneous landscapes. American Naturalist, 151, 97115.
  • Grunbaum, D. (1998). Using spatially explicit models to characterize foraging performance in heterogeneous landscapes. The American Naturalist, 151, 97115.
  • Guertin, P. A. (2004). Synergistic activation of the central pattern generator for locomotion by ***l-beta-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and quipazine in adult paraplegic mice. Neuroscience Letters, 358(2), 7174.
  • Happe, F. G. E. (1999). Austism: Cognitive deficit or cognitive style Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 3, 216222.
  • Harpending, H., & Cochran, G. (2002). In our genes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 99, 1012.
  • Harris-Warrick, R. M., Coniglio, L. M., Barazangi, N., Guckenheimer, J., & Gueron, S. (1995). Dopamine modulation of transient potassium current evokes phase shifts in a central pattern generator network. Journal of Neuroscience, 15, 342358.
  • Hills, T. (2003). Towards a unified theory of animal event timing. In W. Meck (Ed.), Functional and neural mechanisms of interval timing (pp. 77111). New York : CRC Press.
  • Hills, T. (2004). ARS-genetics: A genetic algorithm that evolves individual foragers. Retrieved from http:ccl.northwestern.edunetlogomodelscommunityARS-Genetics.
  • Hills, T., Brockie, P. J., & Maricq, A. V. (2004). Dopamine and glutamate control area-restricted search behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans. Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 12171225.
  • Hills, T., & Stroup, W. (2004, April). Cognitive exploration and search behavior in the development of endogenous representations. Paper presented at the annual meeting for the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA.
  • Hollerman, J. R., & Schultz, W. (1998). Dopamine neurons report an error in the temporal prediction of reward during learning. Nature Neuroscience, 1, 304309.
  • Hong, L. E., Avila, M. T., Adami, H., Elliot, A., & Thaker, G. K. (2003). Components of the smooth pursuit function in deficit and nondeficit schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 63(1), 3948.
  • Houk, J. C. (1995). Information processing in the modular circuits linking basal ganglia and cerebral cortex. In J. C. Houk, J. L. Davis, & D. G. Beiser (Eds.), Models of information processing in the basal ganglia (pp. 39). Cambridge , MA : MIT Press.
  • Houk, J. C., Adams, J. L., & Barto, A. G. (1995). A model of how the basal ganglia generate and use neural signals that predict reinforcement. In J. C. Houk, J. L. Davis, & D. G. Beiser (Eds.), Models of information processing in the basal ganglia (pp. 249270). Cambridge , MA : MIT Press.
  • Houk, J. C., Davis, J. L., & Beiser, D. G. (Eds.) (1995). Models of information processing in the basal ganglia. Cambridge , MA : MIT Press.
  • James, W. (1890). The principles of psychology. New York : Holt.
  • Jenkins, I. H., Brooks, D. J., Nixon, P. D., Frackowiak, R. S. J., & Passingham, R. E. (1994). Motor sequence learning: A study with positron emission tomography. Journal of Neuroscience, 14, 37753790.
  • Jog, M. S., Kubota, Y., Connolly, C. I., Hillegaart, V., & Graybiel, A. M. (1999, November 26). Building neural representations of habits. Science, 286, 17451749.
  • Johnson, B. R., & Harris-Warrick, R. M. (1997). Amine modulation of glutamate responses from pyloric motor neurons in lobster stomatogastric ganglion. Journal of Neurophysiology, 78, 32103221.
  • Kabotyanski, E. A., Baxter, D. A., Cushman, S. J., & Byrne, J. H. (2000). Modulation of fictive feeding by dopamine and serotonin in Aplysia. Journal of Neurophysiology, 83, 374392.
  • Kaplan, H. I., Sacock, B. J., & Grebb, J. A. (1994). Synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences clinical psychiatry (7th ed.). Baltimore : Williams & Wilkins.
  • Kareiva, P., & Odell, G. (1987). Swarms of predators exhibit “preytaxis” if individual predators use area-restricted search. American Naturalist, 130, 233270.
  • King, J. A., Tenney, J., Rossi, V., Colamussi, L., & Burdick, S. (2003). Neural substrates underlying impulsivity. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1008, 160169.
  • Kirkpatrick, S., Gelatt, C. D., Jr., & Vecchi, M. P. (1983, May 13). Optimization by simulated annealing. Science, 220, 671680.
  • Kischka, U., Kammer, T. H., Maier, S., Weisbrod, M., Thimm, M., & Spitzer, M. (1996). Dopaminergic modulation of semantic network activation. Neuropscyhologia, 34, 11071113.
  • Koelsch, S., Kasper, E., Sammler, D., Schulze, K., Gunter, T., & Friederici, A. D. (2004). Music, language and meaning: Brain signatures of semantic processing. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 302307.
  • Korobkova, E., Emonet, T., Vilar, J. M. G., Shimizu, T. S., & Cluzel, P. (2004, April 1). From molecular noise to behavioral variability in a single bacterium. Nature, 428, 574578.
  • Krause, K., Dresel, S. H., Krause, J., la Fougere, C., & Ackenheil, M. (2003). The dopamine transporter and neuroimaging in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 27, 605613.
  • Kretschmer, B. D. (1999). Modulation of mesolimbic dopamine system by glutamate. Journal of Neurochemistry, 73, 839848.
  • Kulisevsky, J. (2000). Role of dopamine in learning and memory: Implications for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease. Drugs and Aging, 16, 365379.
  • LaBerge, D. (1998). Attentional emphasis in visual orienting and resolving. In R. D. Wright (Ed.), Visual attention (pp. 417454). New York : Oxford University Press.
  • Labhart, T., & Meyer, E. P. (2002). Neural mechanisms in insect navigation: Polarization compass and odometer. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 12, 707714.
  • Laruelle, M., Kegeles, L. S., & Abi-Dargham, A. (2003). Glutamate, dopamine, and schizophrenia: From pathophysiology to treatment. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1003, 138158.
  • Ljungberg, T., Apicella, P., & Schultz, W. (1992). Responses of monkey dopamine neurons during learning of behavioral reactions. Journal of Neurophysiology, 67, 145163.
  • Louilot, A., Le Moal, M., & Simon, H. (1989). Opposite influences of dopaminergic pathways to the prefrontal cortex or the septum on the dopaminergic transmission in the nucleus accumbens: An in vivo voltammetric study. Neuroscience, 29, 4556.
  • Lowe, N., Kirley, A., Hawi, Z., Sham, P., Wickham, H., Kratochvil, C. J., et al. (2004). Joint analysis of the DRD5 marker concludes association with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder confined to the predominantly inattentive and combined subtypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 74, 348356.
  • Macenski, M. J., & Meisch, R. A. (1999). Links cocaine self-administration under conditions of restricted and unrestricted food access. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 7, 324337.
  • Macnab, R. M., & Koshland, D. E., Jr. (1972). The gradient-sensing mechanism in bacterial chemotaxis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 69, 25092512.
  • Mansvelder, H. D., Keath, J. R., & McGehee, D. S. (2002). Synaptic mechanisms underlie nicotine-induced excitability of brain reward areas. Neuron, 33, 905919.
  • Mansvelder, H. D., & McGehee, D. (2000). Long-term potentiation of excitatory inputs to brain reward areas by nicotine. Neuron, 27, 349357.
  • Marino, M., Valenti, O., & Conn, P. J. (2003). Glutamate receptors and Parkinson's disease: Opportunities for intervention. Drugs & Aging, 20, 377.
  • Markowitz, J. S., Straughn, A. B., & Patrick, K. S. (2003). Advances in the pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder: Focus on methylphenidate formulations. Pharmacotherapy, 23, 12811299.
  • Martin, C. C., & Gordon, R. (2001). The evolution of perception. Cybernetics and Systems, 32, 393409.
  • Mazzoni, P., Bracewell, R. M., Barash, S., & Andersen, R. A. (1996). Motor intention activity in the macaque's lateral intraparietal area: I. Dissociation of motor from sensory memory. Journal of Neurophysiology, 76, 14391456.
  • McCarthy, G., Blamire, A. M., Puce, A., Nobre, A. C., Bloch, G., Hyder, F., et al. (1994). Functional magnetic resonance imaging of human prefrontal cortex activation during a spatial working memory task. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 91, 86908694.
  • McCulloch, J., Savaki, H. E., & Sokoloff, L. (1982). The distribution of alterations in energy metabolism in the rat brain produced by apomorphine. Brain Research, 243(1), 6780.
  • McDougle, C. J., Goodman, W. K., & Price, L. H. (1994). Dopamine antagonists in tic-related and psychotic spectrum obsessive compulsive disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 55(Suppl.), 2431.
  • Miller, E. K., & Cohen, J. D. (2001). An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 24, 167202.
  • Miyazaki, K., Miyazaki, K. W., & Matsumoto, G. (2004). Different representation of forthcoming reward in nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex. Neuroreport, 15, 721726.
  • Mizumori, S. J. Y., LaVoie, A. M., & Kalyani, A. (1996). Redistribution of spatial representation in the hippocampus of aged rats performing a spatial memory task. Behavioral Neuroscience, 110, 10061016.
  • Mogenson, G., Jones, D., & Yim, C. (1980). From motivation to action: Functional interface between the limbic system and the motor system. Progress in Neurobiology, 14, 6997.
  • Montague, P. R., Hyman, S. E., & Cohen, J. D. (2004, October 14). Computational roles for dopamine in behavioral control. Nature, 431, 760767.
  • Moret, F., Guilland, J. C., Coudouel, S., Rochette, L., & Vernier, P. (2004). Distribution of tyrosine, hydroxylase, dopamine, and serotonin in the central nervous system of amphioxus (Branchiostoma lanceolatum): Implications for the evolution of catecholamine systems in vertebrates. Journal of Compative Neuropsychology, 468, 135150.
  • Mort, D. J., & Kennard, C. (2003). Visual search and its disorders. Current Opinions in Neurobiology, 16, 5157.
  • Muglai, P., Jain, U., Macciardi, F., & Kennedy, J. L. (2000). Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the dopamine D4 receptor gene. American Journal of Medical Genetics, Neuropschiatric Genetics, 96, 273277.
  • Mura, A., & Feldon, J. (2003). Spatial learning in rats is impaired after degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. Movement Disorders, 18, 860871.
  • Nassel, D. R. (1996). Neuropeptides, amines and amino acids in an elementary insect ganglion: Functional chemical anatomy of the unfused abdominal ganglion. Progress in Neurobiology, 48, 325420.
  • Neckameyer, W. S. (1996). Multiple roles for dopamine in Drosophila development. Developmental Biology, 176, 209219.
  • Neely, J. H. (1977). Semantic priming and retrieval from lexical memory: Roles of inhibitionless spreading activation and limited capacity attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology (General), 106, 226254.
  • Nestler, E. J. (2004). Molecular mechanisms of drug addiction. Neuropharmacology, 47(Suppl. 1), 2432.
  • Nieoullon, A. (2002). Dopamine and regulation of cognition and attention. Progress in Neurobiology, 67, 5383.
  • Nistico, G., & Stephenson, J. D. (1979). Dopaminergic mechanisms and stereo-typed behavior in birds. Pharmacological Research Communications, 11, 555570.
  • O'Donnell, P., & Grace, A. (1995). Synaptic interactions among excitatory afferents to nucleus accumbens neurons: Hippocampal gating of prefrontal cortical input. Journal of Neuroscience, 15, 36223639.
  • O'Gara, B. A., Chae, H., Latham, L. B., & Friesen, W. O. (1991). Modification of leech behavior patterns by reserpine-induced amine depletion. Journal of Neuroscience, 11, 96110.
  • Orlov, A. A., Kurzina, N. P., & Shutov, A. P. (1988). Activity of medial wall neurons in frontal cortex of rat brain during delayed response reactions. Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology, 18(1), 3133.
  • Paller, K. A., Mayes, A. R., Thompson, K. M., Young, A. W., Roberts, J., & Meudell, P. R. (1992). Priming of face matching in amnesia. Brain and Cognition, 18(1), 4659.
  • Parent, A., & Cossette, M. (2001). Extrastriatal dopamine and Parkinson's disease. In D. Calne & S. Calne (Eds.), Parkinson's disease: Advances in neurology (Vol. 86, pp. 4554). Philadelphia : Lippincott.
  • Patton, P., & Grobstein, P. (1998). The effects of telencephalic lesions on the visually mediated prey orienting behavior in the leopard frog (Rana pipiens): 1. The effects of limited lesions to the telencephalon. Brain, Behavior and Evolution, 51, 144161.
  • Posey, D. J., & McDougle, C. J. (2000). The pharmacotherapy of target symptoms associated with autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 8(2), 4563.
  • Potter, A. S., & Newhouse, P. A. (2004). Effects of acute nicotine administration on behavioral inhibition in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychopharmacology, 176, 182194.
  • Qin, Y., Sohn, M.-H., Anderson, J. R., Stenger, V. A., Fissell, K., Goode, A., et al. (2003). Predicting the practice effects on the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) function of fMRI in a symbolic manipulation task. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 100, 49514956.
  • Raible, F., & Arendt, D. (2004). Metazoan evolution: Some animals are more equal than others. Current Biology, 14, R106R108.
  • Ralph, R. J., Paulus, M. P., Fumagalli, F., Caron, M. G., & Geyer, M. A. (2001). Prepulse inhibition deficits and perseverative motor patterns in dopamine transporter knock-out mice: Differential effects of D1 and D2 receptor antagonists. Journal of Neuroscience, 21, 305313.
  • Rapaport, J. (1990). The boy who couldn't stop washing. London : Collins.
  • Rascol, O., Ferreira, J. J., Thalamas, C., Galitsky, M., & Montastruc, J. (2001). Dopamine agonists: Their role in the management of Parkinson's disease. In D. Calne & S. Calne (Eds.), Parkinson's disease: Advances in Neurology (Vol. 86, pp. 301309). Philadelphia : Lippincott.
  • Rebec, G. V., Grabner, C. P., Johnson, M., Pierce, R. C., & Bard, M. T. (1996). Transient increases in catecholaminergic activity in medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens shell during novelty. Neuroscience, 76, 707714.
  • Reiner, A. (1994). Catecholaminergic innervation of the basal ganglia in mammals: Anatomy and function. In W. J. A. J. Smeets and A. Reiner (Eds.), Phylogeny and development of catecholamine systems in the CNS of vertebrates (pp. 247272). Cambridge , England : Cambridge University Press.
  • Reiner, A., Brauth, S. E., & Karten, H. J. (1984). Evolution of the amniote basal ganglia. Trends in Neurosciences, 7, 320325.
  • Reiner, A., Medina, L., & Veenman, C. L. (1998). Structural and functional evolution of the basal ganglia in vertebrates. Brain Research Reviews, 28, 235285.
  • Ridley, R. M. (1994). The psychology of perseverative and stereotyped behavior. Progress in Neurobiology, 44, 221231.
  • Ritz, M. C., Lamb, R. J., Goldberg, S. R., & Kuhar, M. J. (1987). Cocain receptors on dopamine transporters are related to self-administration of cocaine. Science 237, 12191223.
  • Robbins, T. W., & Everitt, B. J. (1996). Neurobehavioural mechanisms of reward and motivation. Current Opinions in Neurobiology, 6, 228236.
  • Rocha, B. A., Fumagelli, F., Gainetdinov, R. R., Jones, S. R., Ator, R., Giros, B., et al. (1998). Cocaine self-administration in dopamine transporter knockout mice. Nature Neuroscience, 1, 132137.
  • Rothenfluh, A., & Heberlein, U. (2002). Drugs, flies, and videotape: The effects of ethanol and cocaine on Drosophila locomotion. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 12, 639645.
  • Sakai, K., Hikosaka, O., Miyauchi, S., Takino, R., Sasaki, Y., & Putz, B. (1998). Transition of brain activation from frontal to parietal areas in visuomotor sequence learning. Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 18271840.
  • Salamone, J., Correa, M., Mingote, S., & Weber, S. (2005). Beyond the reward hypothesis: Alternative functions of nucleus accumbens dopamine. Current Opinions in Pharmacololgy, 5, 3441.
  • Salamone, J. D., Cousins, M. S., & Snyder, B. J. (1997). Behavioral functions of the nucleus accumbens dopamine: Empirical and conceptual problems with the anhedonia hypothesis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 21, 341359.
  • Salas, C., Broglio, C., & Rodriquez, F. (2003). Evolution of forebrain and spatial cognition in vertebrates: Conservation across diversity. Brain, Behavior and Evolution, 62, 7282.
  • Sallee, F. R., Nesbitt, L., Jackson, C., Sine, L., & Sethuraman, G. (1997). Relative efficacy of haloperidol and pimozide in children and adolescents with Tourette's disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 10571062.
  • Sawin, E. R., Ranganathan R., & Horvitz, H. R. (2000). C. elegans locomotory rate is modulated by the environment through a dopaminergic pathway and by experience through a serotonergic pathway. Neuron, 26, 619631.
  • Schinka, J. A., Letsch, E. A., & Crawford, F. C. (2002). DRD4 and novelty seeking: Results of meta-analyses. American Journal of Medical Genetics, Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 114, 643648.
  • Schone, H. (1984). Spatial orientation. Princeton , NJ : Princeton University Press.
  • Schultz, W. (2004). Neural coding of basic reward terms of animal learning theory, game theory, microeconomics and behavioural ecology. Current Opinions in Neurobiology, 14, 139144.
  • Schultz, W., Romo, R., Ljungberg, T., Mirenowicz, J., Hollerman, J. R., & Dickinson, A. (1995). Reward-related signals carried by dopamine neurons. In J. C. Houk, J. L. Davis, & D. G. Beiser (Eds.), Models of information processing in the basal ganglia (pp. 233248). Cambridge , MA : MIT Press.
  • Scott, L., Kruse, M. S., Forssberg, H., Brismar, H., Greengard, P., & Aperia, A. (2002). Selective up-regulation of dopamine D1 receptors in dendritic spines by NMDA receptor activation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 99, 16611664.
  • Seamans, J. K., Durstewitz, D., Christie, B. R., Stevens, C. F., & Sejnowski, T. J. (2001). Dopamine D1/D5 receptor modulation of excitatory synaptic inputs to layer V prefrontal cortex neurons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 98, 301306.
  • Seamans, J. K., Floresco, S. B., & Phillips, A. G. (1998). D1 receptor modulation of hippocampal-prefrontal cortical circuits integrating spatial memory with executive functions in the rat. Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 16131621.
  • Seamans, J. K., & Phillips, A. G. (1994). Selective memory impairments produced by transient lidocaine-induced lesions of the nucleus accumbens in rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 108, 456468.
  • Shadmehr, R., & Holcomb, H. H. (1997, August 8). Neural correlates of motor memory consolidation. Science, 277, 821825.
  • Shettleworth, S. J. (1998). Cognition, evolution, and behavior. New York : Oxford University Press.
  • Silva, K. M., & Timberlake, W. (1998). A behavior systems view of responding to probe stimuli during an interfood clock. Animal Learning and Behavior, 26, 313325.
  • Smith, Y., Raju, D. V., Pare, J. F., & Sidibe, M. (2004). The thalamostriatal system: A highly specific network of the basal ganglia circuitry. Trends in Neurosciences, 27, 520527.
  • Snyder, S. H., Banerjee, S. P., Yamamura, H. I., & Greenberg, D. (1974). Drugs, neurotransmitters and schizophrenia. Science, 184, 12431253.
  • Snyder, L. H., Batista, A. P., & Andersen, R. A. (1997, March 13). Coding of intention in the posterior parietal cortex. Nature, 386, 167170.
  • Stephens, D. W., & Krebs, J. R. (1986). Foraging theory. Princeton , NJ : Princeton University Press.
  • Stock, J. B., & Surette, M. G. (1996). Chemotaxis. In F. C. Neidhardt (Ed.), Escherichia coli and salmonella: Cellular and molecular biology (pp. 11031129). Washington , DC : ASM Press.
  • Strogatz, S. H. (2001, March 8). Exploring complex networks. Nature, 410, 268276.
  • Svennson, E., Woolley, J., Wikstrom, M., & Grillner, S. (2003). Endogenous dopaminergic modulation of the lamprey spinal locomotor network. Brain Research, 970, 18.
  • Swanson, J., Oosterlaan, J., Murias, M., Schuck, S., Flodman, P., Spence, M. A., et al. (2000). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children with a 7-repeat allele of the dopamine receptor D4 gene have extreme behavior but normal performance on critical neuropsychological tests of attention Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 97, 47544759.
  • Szczypka, M. S., Rainey, M. A., Kim, D. S., Alaynick, W. A., Marck, B. T., Matsumoto, A. M., et al. (1999). Feeding behavior in dopamine-deficient mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 96, 1213812143.
  • Taghzouti, K., Simon, H., Louilot, A., Herman, J. P., & Le Moal, M. (1985). Behavioral study after local injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the nucleus accumbens in the rat. Brain Research, 344, 920.
  • Thompson, T. L., & Moss, R. L. (1995). In vivo stimulated dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens: Modulation by the prefrontal cortex. Brain Research, 686, 9398.
  • Timberlake, W. (1997). An animal-centered, causal-system approach to the understanding and control of behavior. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 53, 107129.
  • Tipper, S. P., Driver, J., & Weaver, B. (1991). Object-centered inhibition of return of visual attention. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. A, Human Experimental Psychology, 43, 289298.
  • Tipper, S. P., Weaver B., Jerreat, L. M., & Burak, A. L. (1994). Object-based and environment-based inhibition of return of visual attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance, 20, 478499.
  • Tobin, D. M., & Bargmann, C. I. (2004). Invertebrate nociception: Behaviors, neurons and molecules. Journal of Neurobiology, 61, 161174.
  • Trimble, D. L., & Barker, D. L. (1984). Activation by dopamine of patterned motor output from the buccal ganglia of Helisoma trivolvis. Journal of Neurobiology, 15, 3748.
  • Tsai, L. Y. (1999). Psychopharmacology in autism. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61, 651665.
  • Ulam, S. M. (1991). Adventures of a mathematician. Berkeley , CA : University of California Press.
  • Viala, D., & Buser, P. (1971). Methods of obtaining locomotor rhythms in the spinal rabbit by pharmacological treatments (DOPA, 5-HTP, d-amphetamine). Brain Research, 35, 151165.
  • Vickers, N. J. (2000). Mechanisms of animal navigation in odor plumes. Biological Bulletin, 198, 203212.
  • Vishwanathan, G. M., Buldyrev, S. V., Havlin, S., da Luz, M. G. E., Raposo, E. P., & Stanley, H. E. (1999, October 28). Optimizing the success of random searches. Nature, 401, 911914.
  • Volkow, N. D., Fowler, J. S., Wang, G. J., & Swanson, J. M. (2004). Dopamine in drug abuse and addiction: Results from imaging studies and treatment implications. Molecular Psychiatry, 9, 557569.
  • Wagar, B. M., & Thagard, P. (2004). Spiking Phineas Gage: A neurocomputational theory of cognitive-affective integration in decision making. Psychological Review, 111, 6769.
  • Wagener-Hulme, C., Kuehn, J. C., Schulz, D. J., & Robinson, G. E. (1999). Biogenic amines and division of labor in honey bee colonies. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 184, 471479.
  • Walsh, P. D. (1996). Area-restricted search and the scale dependence of patch quality discrimination. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 183, 351361.
  • Wang, M., Vijayraghavan, S., & Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (2004, February 6). Selective D2 receptor actions on the functional circuitry of working memory. Science, 303, 853856.
  • Watanabe, M., Kodama, T., & Hikosaka, K. (1997). Increase of extracellular dopamine in primate prefrontal cortex during working memory task. Journal of Neurophsyiology, 78, 27952798.
  • Wehner, R., & Srinivasan, M. V. (1981). Searching behavior in the desert ants, genus Cataglyphis (Formicidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Comparative Physiology, 142, 315338.
  • Weissenborn, R., & Winn, P. (1992). Regulatory behaviour, exploration and locomotion following NMDA or 6-OHDA lesions in the rat nucleus accumbens. Behavioral Brain Research, 51, 127137.
  • White, J., Tobin, T. R., & Bell, W. J. (1984). Local search in the housefly Musca domestica after feeding on sucrose. Journal of Insect Physiology, 30, 477487.
  • White, J. G., Southgate, E., Thomson, J. N., & Brenner, S. (1986). The structure of the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences, 314, 1340.
  • White, N. M. (1997). Mnemonic functions of the basal ganglia. Current Opinions in Neurobiology, 7, 164169.
  • Wickens, J. (1990). Striatal dopamine in motor activation and reward-mediated learning: Steps towards a unifying model. Journal of Neural Transmission, 80(1), 931.
  • Wieland, S. J., & Gelperin, A. (1983). Dopamine elicits feeding motor program in Limax maximus. Journal of Neuroscience, 3, 17351745.
  • Wilensky, U. (1999). NetLogo [Computer software]. Retrieved from http:ccl.northwestern.edunetlogodownload.shtml.
  • Wishaw, I. Q., & Dunnett, S. B., (1985). Dopamine depletion, stimulation or blockade in the rat disrupts spatial navigation and locomotion dependent upon beacon or distal cues. Behavioral Brain Research, 18, 1129.
  • Wittenburg, N., & Baumeister, R. (1999). Thermal avoidance in Caenorhabditis elegans: An approach to the study of nociception. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 96, 1047710482.
  • Wolf, F. W., & Heberlein, U. (2003). Invertebrate models of drug abuse. Journal of Neurobiology, 54, 161178.
  • Yun, I. A., Nicola, S. M., & Fields, H. L. (2004). Contrasting effects of dopamine and glutamate receptor antagonist injection in the nucleus accumbens suggest a neural mechanism underlying cue-evoked goal-directed behavior. European Journal of Neuroscience, 20, 249263.
  • Zheng, Y., Brockie, P. J., Mellem, J. E., Madsen, D. M., & Maricq, A. V. (1999). Neuronal control of locomotion in C. elegans is modified by a dominant mutation in the GLR-1 ionotropic glutamate receptor. Neuron, 24, 347361.