SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • Anderson, J.R. (1987). Skill acquisition: Compilation of weak-method problem solutions. Psychological Review, 94, 192210.
  • Bransford, J.R., Stein, B.S., Vye, N.J., Franks, J.J., Auble, P.M., Mezynski, K.J., & Perfetto, G.A. (1982). Differences in approaches to learning: An overview. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 111, 390398.
  • Brown, A.L., Bransford, J.D., Ferrara, R.A., & Campione, J.C. (1983). Learning, remembering, and understanding. In J.H. Flavell & E.M. Markman (Eds.), Cognitive development (Vol. III of P.H. Mussen, Ed., Handbook of child psychology. pp. 77166). New York : Wiley.
  • Chi, M.T.H., Feltovich, P., & Glaser, R. (1981). Categorization and representation of physics problems by experts and novices. Cognitive Science, 5, 121152.
  • Chi, M.T.H., Glaser, R., & Farr, M. (1988). The nature of expertise. Hillsdale , NJ : Erlbaum.
  • Chi, M.T.H., Glaser, R., & Rees, E. (1982). Expertise in problem solving. In R.J. Sternberg (Ed.), Advances in the psychology of human intelligence (Vol. 1.) Hillsdale , NJ : Erlbaum.
  • Collins, A., & Stevens, A.L. (1982). Goals and strategies of inquiry teachers. In R. Glaser (Ed.), Advances in instructional psychology (Vol. 2). Hillsdale , NJ : Erlbaum.
  • Dietterich, T., & Michalski, R.S. (1983). A comparative review of selected methods for learning from examples. In R.S. Michalski, J.G. Carbonell & T.M. Mitchell (Eds.), Machine Learning: An artificial intelligence approach. Los Altos , CA : Morgan-Kaufmann.
  • Elio, R., & Anderson, J.R. (1983). Effects of category generalizations and instance similarity on schema abstraction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 113, 541555.
  • Eylon, B., & Helfman, J. (1982, February). Analogical and deductive problem-solving in physics. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association meeting, New York .
  • Gagne, R.M., & Smith, E.C., Jr. (1962). A study of the effects of verbalization on problem solving. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63, 1218.
  • Greeno, J., & Riley, M.S. (1987). Processes and development of understanding. In F.E. Weinert & R.H. Kluwe (Eds.), Metacognition, motivation, and understanding. Hillsdale , NJ : Erlbaum.
  • Halliday, D., & Resnick, R. (1981). Fundamentals of physics. New York : Wiley.
  • Just, M.A., & Carpenter, P.A. (1976). Eye fixations and cognitive processes. Cognitive Psychology, 8, 227299.
  • Kearsley, G.P. (1976). Questions and question-asking in verbal discourse: A cross-disciplinary review. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 5, 355375.
  • Kieras, D.E., & Bovair, S. (1986). The acquisition of procedures from text: A production system analysis of transfer of training. Journal of Memory and Language, 25, 507524.
  • Larkin, J.H., & Simon, H.A. (1987). Why a diagram is sometimes worth ten-thousand words. Cognitive Science, 11, 6599.
  • LeFevre, J., & Dixon, P. (1986). Do written instructions need examples? Cognition and Instruction, 3, 130.
  • Lewis, C. (1988). Why and how to learn why: Analysis-based generalization of procedures, Cognitive Science, 2, 211256.
  • Lewis, C.H., & Mack, R.L. (1982). Learning to use a text processing system: Evidence from “thinking aloud” protocols. In Proceedings of the conference of human factors in computer systems. New York : ACM.
  • Mitchell, T.M., Keller, R.M., & Kedar-Cabelli, S.T. (1986). Explanation-based generalization: A unifying view. Machine Learning, 1, 4880.
  • Murphy, G.L., & Medin, D.L. (1985). The role of theories in conceptual coherence. Psychological Review, 92, 289316.
  • Newell, A., & Simon, H.A. (1972). Human problem solving. Englewood Cliffs , NJ : Prentice-Hall.
  • Pirolli, P.L., & Anderson, J.R. (1985). The role of learning from examples in the acquisition of recursive programming skills. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 39, 240272.
  • Reder, L.M., & Anderson, J.R. (1980). A comparison of texts and their summaries: Memorial consequences. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, 121134.
  • Reder, L.M., Charney, D.H., & Morgan, K.I. (1986). The role of elaborations in learning a skill from an instructional text. Memory & Cognition, 14, 6478.
  • Reed, S.K., Dempster, A., & Ettinger, M. (1985). Usefulness of analogous solutions for solving algebra word problems. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 11, 106125.
  • Simon, H.A. (1979). Problem solving and education. In D. Tuma & F. Reif (Eds.), Problem solving and education: Issues in teaching and research. Hillsdale , NJ : Erlbaum.
  • Sweller, J., & Cooper, G.A. (1985). The use of worked examples as a substitute for problem solving in learning algebra. Cognition and Instruction, 2, 5989.
  • VanLehn, K. (1986). Arithmetic procedures are induced from examples. In J. Hiebert (Ed.), Conceptual and procedural knowledge: The case of mathematics. Hillsdale , NJ : Erlbaum.
  • Wickelgren, W.A. (1974). How to solve problems: Elements of a theory of problems and problem solving. San Francisco : Freemen.