Outcomes of pharmaceutical care intervention to hypertensive patients in a Nigerian community pharmacy

Authors

  • Azuka C Oparah,

    Lecturer, Corresponding author
    1. Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, University of Benin, Nigeria
      Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, University of Benin, Benin City 300001, Nigeria. E-mail: oparaca@yahoo.com
    Search for more papers by this author
  • David U Adje,

    Community pharmacist
    1. Supamed Pharmacy Ltd, Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Ehijie FO Enato

    Lecturer
    1. Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, University of Benin, Nigeria
    Search for more papers by this author

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, University of Benin, Benin City 300001, Nigeria. E-mail: oparaca@yahoo.com

Abstract

Objective To describe pharmaceutical care interventions provided to hypertensive patients in a Nigerian community pharmacy setting, and to assess the impact of the practice on selected patient outcomes.

Method A non-randomised, single-site study was conducted using community-dwelling patients with hypertension. A pharmaceutical care intervention, which consisted mainly of verbal counselling, provision of an information leaflet, and subsequent monitoring with reinforcement, was provided. Parameters assessed at baseline and end of investigation included blood pressure control, body mass index determination, level of medication adherence, patient knowledge of the disease, and patient satisfaction.

Key findings Forty-two (42) patients were recruited and 36 completed the study, 26 (73%) were males, and 33 (92%) were married. Twenty (20, 58%) had post-secondary education. About three-quarters (27, 81%) were either overweight or obese (BMI >25). There was a significant difference between mean systolic blood pressure at baseline (187.67 ± 29.46 mmHg) and at the end of the study (137.22 ± 21.65 mmHg), P< 0.0001. Changes in mean diastolic blood pressure at baseline (117.56 ± 21.65) and end of study (89 ± 17.23), were also significant (P< 0.0001). Some 27 (75%) reached systolic blood pressure goals while 25 (69%) attained diastolic blood pressure goals. Prior to the pharmaceutical care intervention, 27 (75%) were not aware that salt intake was a risk factor in hypertension, and a similar proportion thought that hypertension was curable. The pharmaceutical care intervention produced a significantly higher patient-reported satisfaction rating than baseline: 3.48 ± 0.83 (49%) versus 3.92 ± 0.62 (74%); t = 2.548; P=0.013 and 3.30 ± 0.72 (41%) versus 4.27 ± 0.56 (87%); t= 6.381, P< 0.0001 on the subscales respectively.

Conclusion Pharmaceutical care provided to hypertensive patients in a Nigerian community pharmacy setting improved blood pressure control and overall patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical services.

Ancillary