Objectives This study aimed to investigate the possible modification of the neuroprotective effect of sodium ferulate, when orally co-administered with borneol, in transient global cerebral ischaemia-induced functional, histological and cellular alterations in mice.
Methods The bilateral common carotid artery occlusion was conducted in C57 BL/6J mice for 25 min. The mice were then subjected to a water maze test over an extended recovery period, followed by an assessment of neuronal loss in the CA1 region of the hippocampus (haematoxylin and eosin staining). The blood–brain barrier permeability (Evans blue tracing), brain oedema and oxidative stress were assayed and histological sections were also immunostained for gliofibrillar acid protein (GFAP) expression.
Key findings The ischaemia reperfused mice were associated with long-lasting spatial learning deficits in the absence of other behavioural impairments and with neurodegeneration in the hippocampal CA1 region. However, the histological injuries were significantly attenuated by oral co-administration of sodium ferulate and borneol. Furthermore, combined treatment with sodium ferulate and borneol resulted in a significant reduction in brain oedema, GFAP-positive cells, malonaldialdehyde levels and blood–brain barrier permeability, but an increase in superoxide dismutase activity.
Conclusions Borneol may have benefits for the neuroprotective effect of sodium ferulate against injury induced in the brain by ischaemia/reperfusion.