SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • Aagaard, K. and Carmack, E. C. 1989 The role of sea ice and other fresh water in the Arctic circulation. J. Geophys. Res., 94, 1448514498
  • Beare, M. H. 1998 The Southampton–East Anglia parallel ocean circulation model: equations and finite difference scheme. (http://www.mth.uea.ac.uk/ocean/SEA)
  • Bell, M. J. 1994 ‘Notes on how to choose parameter values for the Cox numerical ocean circulation model’. Forecasting Research Technical Report No. 135, Met Office, Bracknell, UK
  • Bigg, G. R. and Wadley, M. R. 2001 Millennial changes in the oceans: an ocean modeller's viewpoint. J. Quarternary Sci., 16, 309319
  • Böning, C. W., Bryan, F. O., Holland, W. R. and Döscher, R. 1996 Deep-water formation and meridional overturning in a high-resolution model of the North Atlantic. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26, 11421164
  • Bryan, K. 1969 A numerical method for studying the circulation of the world ocean. J. Comput. Phys., 4, 347376
  • 1984 Accelerating the convergence to equilibrium of ocean–climate models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 14, 666673
  • Bryan, K. and Lewis, L. J. 1979 A water mass model of the world ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 85(C5), 25032717
  • Bryan, K., Manabe, S. and Pacanowski, R. 1975 A global ocean–atmosphere climate model. Part II: the oceanic circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 5, 3046
  • Cai, W. 1994 Circulation driven by observed surface thermohaline fields in a coarse resolution ocean general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res., 99(C5), 1016310181
  • Chong, J. C., Sprintall, J., Hautala, S., Morawitz, W. L., Bray, N. A. and Pandoe, W. 2000 Shallow throughflow variability in the outflow straits of Indonesia. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 125128
  • Coachman, L. K. and Aagaard, K. 1988 Transports through the Bering Strait—annual and interannual variability. J. Geophys. Res., 93, 1553515539
  • Cox, M. D. 1984 ‘A primitive equation three-dimensional model of the ocean’. Technical Report 1, GFDL Ocean Group, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory/NOAA, Princeton, USA
  • Danabasoglu, G., McWilliams, J. C. and Large, W. G. 1996 Approach to equilibrium in accelerated global oceanic models. J. Climate, 9, 10921110
  • Deleersnijder, E., Van Ypersele, J.-P. and Campin, J.-P. 1993 ‘An orthogonal, curvilinear coordinate system for a world ocean model’. Ocean Modelling, 100, 710 (unpublished manuscript)
  • Dickson, R. R. and Brown, J. 1994 The production of North Atlantic deep water: sources, rates and pathways. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 1231912341
  • Eby, M. and Holloway, G. 1994 Grid transformation for incorporating the Arctic in a global ocean model. Clim. Dyn., 10, 241247
  • England, M. H. 1993 Representing the global-scale water masses in ocean general circulation models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23, 15231552
  • ETOPO 1986 ‘Global 5′×5′ depth and elevation’. National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA, Boulder, USA
  • Fairbanks, R. G. 1989 A 17 000 year glacio-eustatic sea-level record: Influence of glacial melting rates on the Younger Dryas event and deep-ocean circulation. Nature, 342, 637642
  • Fanning, A. E. and Weaver, A. J. 1996 An atmospheric energy–moisture balance model: climatology, interpentadal climate change, and coupling to an ocean general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 1511115128
  • Fissel, D. B., Lemon, D. D., Melling, H. and Lake, R. A. 1988 Non-tidal flows in the Northwest passage. Canadian Tech. Rep. Hydrogr. Ocean Sci. 98, Institute of Ocean Science, Sidney, British Columbia, Canada
  • Foldvik, A., Aagaard, K. and Tørresen, T. 1988 On the velocity field of the east Greenland current. Deep-Sea Res., 35, 13351354
  • The FRAM group 1991 An eddy-resolving model of the Southern Ocean. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 72, 169174
  • Gates, W. L., Henderson-Sellers, A., Boer, G. J., Folland, C. K., Kitoh, A., McAvaney, B. J., Semazzi, F., Smith, N., Weaver, A. J. and Zeng, Q.-C. 1995 ‘Climate models—an evaluation’. Pp. 229284 in Climate change 1995. Eds. J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, B. A. Callan-der, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg and K. Maskell. Cambridge University Press
  • Gent, P. R. and McWilliams, J. C. 1990 Isopycnal mixing in ocean circulation models. J. Phys. Oceangr., 20, 150155
  • Goosse, H., Fichefet, T. and Campin, J.-M. 1997a The effects of the water flow through the Canadian Archipelago in a global ice–ocean model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 15071510
  • Goosse, H., Campin, J.-M., Fichefet, T. and Deleersnijder, E. 1997b Sensitivity of a global ice–ocean model to the Bering Strait throughflow. Clim. Dyn., 13, 349358
  • Gordon, A. L. 1986 Inter-ocean exchange of thermocline water. J. Geophys. Res., 91, 50375046
  • Griffies, S. M., Gnanadesikan, A., Pacanowski, R. C., Larichev, V., Dukowicz, J. K. and Smith, R. D. 1998 Isoneutral diffusion in a z-coordinate ocean model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28, 831841
  • Grose, T. J., Johnson, J. A. and Bigg, G. R. 1995 A comparison between the FRAM (Fine-Resolution Antarctic Model) results and observations in the Drake Passage. Deep-Sea Res., 42, 365388
  • Gwilliam, C. S. 1995 ‘The OCCAM global ocean model’. Pp. 446454 in Coming of age. Eds. G.-R. Hoffmann and N. Kreitz. World Scientific, Singapore
  • Hellerman, S. and Rosenstein, M. 1983 Normal monthly wind stress over the world's ocean with error estimates. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13, 10931104
  • Holland, D. M., Mysak, L. A. and Oberhuber, J. M. 1996 Simulation of the mixed layer circulation in the Arctic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 1111128
  • Hopkins, T. S. 1988 ‘The GIN Sea. Review of physical oceanography and literature from 1972’. SR-124, Saclant Undersea Research Centre, La Spezia, Italy
  • Hughes, W. F. and Gaylord, E. B. 1964 Basic equations of engineering science. McGraw-Hill, London
  • Johns, T. C., Carnell, R. E., Crossley, J. F., Gregory, J. M., Mitchell, J. F. B., Senior, C. A., Tett, S. F. B. and Wood, R. A. 1997 The second Hadley Centre coupled ocean–atmosphere GCM: model description, spinup and validation. Clim. Dyn., 13, 103134
  • Lau, N.-C. and Nath, M. J. 1990 A general circulation model study of the atmospheric response to extratropical SST anomalies observed in 1950–79. J. Climate, 3, 965989
  • Lazier, J. R. N. 1988 Temperature and salinity changes in the deep Labrador Sea, 1962–1986. Deep-Sea Res., 8, 12471253
  • Levitus, S. and Boyer, T. P. 1994 World ocean atlas, Volume 3: Salinity. NOAA, Washington D.C.
  • Levitus, S., Burgett, R. and Boyer, T. P. 1994 World ocean atlas, Volume 4: Temperature. NOAA, Washington D.C.
  • Madec, G. and Imbard, M. 1996 A global mesh to overcome the North Pole singularity. Clim. Dyn., 12, 381388
  • Manabe, S. and Stouffer, R. J. 1995 Simulation of abrupt climate change induced by freshwater input to the North Atlantic Ocean. Nature, 378, 165167
  • Manabe, S., Stouffer, R. J., Spelman, M. J. and Bryan, K. 1991 Transient response of a coupled ocean–atmosphere model to gradual changes of atmospheric CO2. Part 1: Annual mean response. J. Climate, 4, 785818
  • Marti, O., Madec, G. and Delecluse, P. 1992 Comment on ‘Net diffusivity in ocean general circulation models with nonuniform grids’ by F. L. Yin and I. Y. Fung. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 1276312766
  • Meyers, G., Bailey, R. J. and Worby, A. P. 1995 Geostrophic transport of Indonesian throughflow. Deep-Sea Res., Part 1, 42, 11631174
  • Mitchell, J. F. B., Manabe, S., Meleshko, V. and Tokioka, T. 1990 ‘Equilibrium climate change—and its implications for the future’. Pp. 130164 in Climate change. The IPCC Scientific Assessment. Eds. J. T. Houghton, G. J. Jenkins and J. J. Ephraums. Cambridge University Press
  • Moore, A. M. and Reason, C. J. C. 1993 The response of a global OGCM to climatological surface boundary conditions for temperature and salinity. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23, 300328
  • Nowlin, W. D. and Klinck, J. M. 1986 The physics of the Antarctic circumpolar current. Rev. Geophys., 23, 459491
  • Oberhuber, J. M. 1988 ‘An atlas based on the ‘COADS’ data set: the budgets of heat, buoyancy and turbulent kinetic energy at the surface of the global ocean’. Rep. 15, Max-Planck-Institut fur Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany
  • Parkinson, C. L. and Washington, W. M. 1979 A large-scale numerical model of sea ice. J. Geophys. Res., 84, 311337
  • Peltier, W. R. 1994 Ice age paleotopography. Science, 265, 195201
  • Rahmstorf, S. and Willebrand, J. 1995 The role of temperature feedback in stabilizing the thermohaline circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25, 787805
  • Reason, C. J. C. and Power, S. B. 1994 The influence of the Bering Strait on the circulation in a coarse resolution global ocean model. Clim. Dyn., 9, 363369
  • Rind, D., Peteet, D., Broecker, W., McIntyre, A. and Ruddiman, W. 1986 The impact of cold North Atlantic sea surface temperatures on climate: implications for Younger Dryas cooling. Clim. Dyn., 1, 333
  • Roeckner, E., Bengtsson, L., Feichter, J., Lelieveld, J. and Rodhe, H. 1999 Transient climate change simulations with a coupled atmosphere–ocean GCM including the tropospheric sulfur cycle. J. Climate, 12, 30043032
  • Rudels, B. 1986 The outflow of polar water through the Arctic Archipelago and the oceanic conditions in Baffin Bay. Polar Res., 4, 161180
  • Sarnthein, M., Jansen, E., Weinelt, M. & 12 others 1995 Variations in Atlantic surface ocean paleoceanography, 50°–80°N—a time-slice record of the last 30 000 years. Pale-oceanography, 10, 10631094
  • Schmitz, W. J. 1995 On the interbasin-scale thermohaline circulation. Rev. Geophys., 33, 151173
  • Semtner, A. J. 1974 ‘A general circulation model for the world ocean’. Technical Report 8, Department of Meteorology, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
  • Semtner, A. J. and Chervin, R. M. 1988 A simulation of the global ocean circulation with resolved eddies. J. Geophys. Res., 93, 1550215522
  • Shaffer, G. and Bendtsen, J. 1994 Role of the Bering Strait in controlling North Atlantic ocean circulation and climate. Nature, 367, 354357
  • Steele, M., Thomas, D. and Rothrock, D. 1996 A simple model study of the Arctic Ocean freshwater balance, 1979–1985. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 2083320848
  • Thompson, S. R. 1995 Sills of the global ocean: a compilation. Ocean Modelling, 109, 79 (unpublished manuscript)
  • Tomczak, M. and Godfrey, J. S. 1994 Regional oceanography: an introduction. Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK
  • van Aken, H. M. 1988 Transports of water masses through the Faroese channels determined by an inverse method. Deep-Sea Res., 35, 595617
  • Vörösmarty, C. J., Fekete, B. and Tucker, B. A. 1996 ‘River discharge database, version 1.0 (RivDIS v1.0). Volumes 0 through 6. A contribution to IHP-V Theme 1’. Technical Documents in Hydrology Series. UNESCO, Paris
  • 1998 ‘River discharge database, version 1.1 (RivDIS v1.0 supplement)’. Available through the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space/University of New Hampshire, Durham NH (USA) athttp://pyramid.sr.unh.edu/cs rc/hydro/
  • Wadley, M. R. and Bigg, G. R. 1996 Abyssal channel flow in ocean general circulation models with application to the Vema Channel. J. Phys. Oceangr., 26, 3848
  • 2000 Implementation of variable time stepping in an ocean general circulation model. Ocean Modelling, 1, 7180
  • Webb, D. J. 1996 An ocean model code for array processor computers. Comput. Geosciences, 22, 569578
  • Webb, D. J., DeCuevas, B. A. and Coward, A. C. 1998 ‘The first main run of the OCCAM global ocean model’. Internal Document No. 34, Southampton Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK
  • Wood, R. A. 1993 A study of ocean spinup strategies for climate models. In Research activities in atmospheric and oceanic modelling, 18, Ed. G. J. Boer. WMO/TD No. 533, WMO, Geneva
  • Wood, R. A., Keen, A. B., Mitchell, J. F. B. and Gregory, J. M. 1999 Changing spatial structure of the thermohaline circulation in response to atmospheric CO2 forcing in a climate model. Nature, 399, 572575
  • Worthington, L. V. 1970 The Norwegian Sea as a Mediterranean basin. Deep-Sea Res., 19, 7784
  • Zhang, S., Greatbatch, R. J. and Lin, C. A. 1993 A re-examination of the polar halocline catastrophe and implications for coupled ocean–atmosphere modeling. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23, 287299
  • Zreda, M., England, J., Phillips, F., Elmore, D. and Sharma, P. 1999 Unblocking of Nares Strait by Greenland and Ellesmere ice-sheet retreat 10 000 years ago. Nature, 398, 139142