SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • Barker, H. W. 2000 Indirect aerosol forcing by homogeneous and inhomogeneous clouds. J. Climate, 13, 40424049
  • Barker, H. W., Wielicki, B. A. and Parker, L. 1996 A parameterization for computing grid-averaged solar fluxes for inhomogeneous marine boundary-layer clouds. Part II: Validation using satellite data. J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 23042316
  • Barker, H. W., Morcrette, J.-J and Alexander, G. D. 1998 Broadband solar fluxes and heating rates for atmospheres with 3D broken clouds. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 124, 12451271
  • Barker, H. W., Pincus, R. and Morcrette, J.-J. 2002 ‘The Monte Carlo independent column approximation: Application within large-scale models’. In Proceedings of the GCSSARM workshop on the representation of cloud systems in large-scale models, May 2002, Kananaskis, AB, Canada
  • Barker, H. W., Goldstein, R. K. and Stevens, D. E. 2003a Monte Carlo simulation of solar reflectances for cloudy atmospheres. J. Atmos. Sci., 60, 18811894
  • Barker, H. W., Stephens, G. L., Partain, P. T., Bergman, J. W., Bonnel, B., Campana, K., Clothiaux, E. E., Clough, S., Cusack, S., Delamere, J., Edwards, J., Evans, K. F., Fouquart, Y., Freidenreich, S., Galin, V., Hou, Y., Kato, S., Li, J., Mlawer, E., Morcrette, J.-J., O'Hirok, W., Räisänen, P., Ramaswamy, V., Ritter, B., Rozanov, E., Schlesinger, M., Shibata, K., Sporyshev, P., Sun, Z., Wendisch, M., Wood, N. and Yang, F. 2003b Assessing 1D atmospheric solar radiative transfer models: Interpretation and handling of unresolved clouds. J. Climate, 16, 26762699
  • Cahalan, R. F., Ridgway, W., Wiscombe, W. J., Gollmer, S. and Harshvardhan 1994 Independent pixel and Monte Carlo estimates of stratocumulus albedo. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 37763790
  • Coakley, J. A., Cess, R. D. and Yurevich, F. B. 1983 The effect of tropospheric aerosols on the earth's radiation budget: A parameterization for climate models. J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 116138
  • Coley, P. F. and Jonas, P. R. 1997 The contribution of cloud inhomogeneities and droplet concentration to the albedo of broken-cloud fields. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 123, 19311944
  • Davis, A., Gabriel, P., Lovejoy, S., Schertzer, D. and Austin, G. 1990 Discrete angle radiative transfer. Part III: Numerical results and applications. J. Geophys. Res., 95, 1172911742
  • Dobbie, J. S., Li, J. and Chylek, P. 1999 Two and four stream optical properties for water clouds at solar wavelenghts. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 20672079
  • Feingold, G., Boers, R., Stevens, B. and Cotton, W. R. 1997 A modeling study of the effect of drizzle on cloud optical depth and susceptibility. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 1352713534
  • Fu, Q. 1996 An accurate parameterization of the solar radiative properties of cirrus clouds for climate models. J. Climate, 9, 20582082
  • Fu, Q. and Liou, K.-N. 1992 On the correlated k-distribution method for radiative transfer in nonhomogeneous atmospheres. J. Atmos. Sci, 49, 21392156
  • Fu, Q., Yang, P. and Sun, W. B. 1998 An accurate parameterization of the infrared radiative properties of cirrus clouds for climate models. J. Climate, 11, 22232237
  • Fu, Q., Carlin, B. and Mace, G. G. 2000 Cirrus horizontal inhomogeneity and OLR bias. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 33413344
  • Gradshteyn, I. S.. and Ryzhik, I. M. 1980 Table of integrals, series, and products: Corrected and enlarged edition. Academic Press, London
  • Han, Q., Rossow, W. and Lacis, A. 1994 Near-global survey of effective droplet radii in liquid water clouds using ISCCP data. J. Climate, 7, 465497
  • Hansen, J. E. and Travis, L. D. 1974 Light scattering in planetary atmospheres. Space Sci. Rev., 16, 527610
  • Hu, Y. X. and Stamnes, K. 1993 An accurate parameterization of the radiative properties of water clouds suitable for use in climate models. J. Climate, 6, 728742
  • Joseph, J. H., Wiscombe, W. J. and Wienman, J. A. 1976 The delta-Eddington approximation for radiative transfer. J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 24522459
  • Kato, S., Smith, G. L. and Barker, H. W. 2001 Gamma-weighted discrete ordinate two-stream approximation for computation of domain-averaged solar irradiance. J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 37973803
  • Khairoutdinov, M. F. and Randall, D. A. 2001 A cloud-resolving model as a cloud parameterization in the NCAR Community Climate System Model: Preliminary results. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 36173620
  • Korolev, A. V., Isaac, G. A., Mazin, I. and Barker, H. W. 2001 Microphysical properties of continental stratiform clouds. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 127, 21172151
  • Lacis, A. A. and Oinas, V. 1991 A description of the correlated k-distribution method for modeling nongray gaseous absorption, thermal emission, and multiple scattering in vertically inhomogeneous atmospheres. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 90279063
  • Li, J. 2002 Accounting for unresolved clouds in a 1D infrared radiative transfer code. Part I: Solution for radiative transfer, including cloud scattering and overlap. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 33023320
  • Li, J. and Barker, H. W. 2002 Accounting for unresolved clouds in a 1D infrared radiative transfer model. Part II: Horizontal variability of cloud water path. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 33213339
  • Lindner, T. H. and Li, J. 2000 Parameterization of the optical properties for water clouds in the infrared. J. Climate, 13, 17971805
  • Lohmann, U. and Feichter, J. 2001 Can the direct and semi-direct aerosol effect compete with the indirect effect on a global scale? Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 159161
  • Los, A. and Duynkerke, P. G. 2000 Microphysical and radiative properties of inhomogeneous stratocumulus: Observations and model simulations. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 126, 32873307
  • Martin, G. M., Johnson, D. W. and Spice, A. 1994 The measurement and parameterization of effective radius of droplets in warm stratocumulus. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 18231842
  • McClatchey, R. A., Fenn, R. W., Selby, J. E. A., Volz, F. E. and Garing, J. S. 1971 ‘Optical properties of the atmosphere’. Report AFCRL-71-0279 (available from Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, MA 01731, USA)
  • O'Hirok, W. and Gautier, C. 1998 A three-dimensional radiative transfer model to investigate the solar radiation within a cloudy atmosphere. Part I: Spatial effects. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 21622179
  • Oreopoulos, L. and Barker, H. W. 1999 Accounting for subgrid-scale cloud variability in a multi-layer, 1D solar radiative transfer algorithm. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 125, 301330
  • Pincus, R., MacFarlane, S. A. and Klein, S. A. 1999 Albedo bias and the horizontal variability of clouds in subtropical marine boundary layers: Observations from ships and satellites. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 61836191
  • Pincus, R., Barker, H. W. and Morcrette, J.-J. 2003 A fast, flexible, approximate technique of computing radiative transfer for inhomogeneous clouds. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4376, doi:10.1029/2002JD003322
  • Räisänen, P. 1999 Effect of vertical resolution on cloudy-sky radiation calculations: Tests with two schemes. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 2740727419
  • Räisänen, P., Isaac, G. A., Barker, H. W. and Gultepe, I. 2003 Solar radiative transfer for stratiform clouds with horizontal variations in liquid water path and droplet effective radius. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 129, 21352149
  • Räisänen, P., Barker, H. W., Khairoutdinov, M. and Randall, D. A. 2004 Stochastic generation of subgrid-scale cloudy columns for large-scale models. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 130, (in press)
  • Ronnholm, K., Baker, M. B. and Harrison, H. 1980 Radiative transfer through media with uncertain or variable parameters. J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 12791290
  • Rossow, W. B., Delo, C. and Cairns, B. 2002 Implications of the observed mesoscale variations of clouds for the earth's radiation budget. J. Climate, 15, 557585
  • Slingo, A. 1989 A GCM parameterization for the shortwave radiative properties of water clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 14191427
  • Szczodrak, M., Austin, P. H. and Krummel, P. B. 2001 Variability of optical depth and effective radius in marine stratocumulus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 29122926
  • Tanre, D., Geleyn, J.-F. and Slingo, J. M. 1984 ‘First results of the introduction of an advanced aerosol–radiation interaction in the ECMWF low resolution global model’. Pp. 133177 in Aerosols and their climatic effects. Eds. H. E. Gerber and A. Deepak, A. Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Virginia, USA
  • Wiscombe, W. J., Welch, R. M. and Hall, W. D. 1984 The effects of very large drops on cloud absorption. Part I: Parcel models. J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 13361355