SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • Adler, R. F., Huffman, G. J., Chang, A., Ferraro, R., Xie, P., Janowiak, J., Rudolf, B., Schneider, U., Curtis, S., Bolvin, D., Gruber, A., Susskind, J., Arkin, P. and Nelkin, E. 2003 The Version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis (1979–present). J. Hydrometeorol., 4, 11471167
  • Allan, R. P., Ringer, M. A., Pamment, J. A. and Slingo, A. 2004 Simulation of the earth's radiation budget by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts 40-year Reanalysis (ERA40). J. Geophys. Res., 109, D18107, doi: 1029/2004JD004816
  • Andersson, E. and Järvinen, H. 1999 Variational quality control. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 125, 697722
  • Andersson, E., Haseler, J., Undén, P., Courtier, P., Kelly, G., Vasiljevic, D., Brancovic, C., Cardinali, C., Gaffard, C., Hollingsworth, A., Jakob, C., Janssen, P., Klinker, E., Lanzinger, A., Miller, M., Rabier, F., Simmons, A., Strauss, B., Thépaut, J.-N. and Viterbo, P. 1998 The ECMWF implementation of three-dimensional variational assimilation (3D-Var). III: Experimental results. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 124, 18311860
  • Andersson, E., Bauer, P., Beljaars, A., Chevallier, F., Hólm, E., Janisková, M., Kållberg, P., Kelly, G., Lopez, P., McNally, A., Moreau, E., Simmons, A., Thépaut, J.-N. and Tompkins, A. 2004 Assimilation and modeling of the hydrological cycle in the ECMWF forecasting system. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 86, 387402
  • Andrae, U., Sokka, N. and Onogi, K. 2004 ‘The radiosonde temperature bias corrections used in ERA-40’. ECMWF ERA-40 Project Report Series, No. 15. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/ publications)
  • Beljaars, A. C. M. and Viterbo, P. 1999 The role of the boundary layer in a numerical weather prediction model. In Clear and cloudy boundary layers. Eds. A. A. M. Holtslag and P. G. Duynkerke. North Holland Publishers, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
  • Bengtsson, L. and Shukla, J. 1988 Integration of space and in situ observations to study global climate change. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 69, 11301143
  • Bengtsson, L., Kanamitsu, M., Kållberg, P. and Uppala, S. 1982 FGGE 4-dimensional data assimilation at ECMWF. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 63, 2943
  • Bengtsson, L., Hodges, K. I. and Hagemann, S. 2004a Sensitivity of large-scale atmospheric analyses to humidity observations and its impact on the global water cycle and tropical and extratropical weather systems in ERA-40. Tellus, 56A, 202217
  • Bengtsson, L., Hagemann, S. and Hodges, K. I. 2004b Can climate trends be calculated from reanalysis data? J. Geophys. Res., 109, D11111, doi: 1029/2004JD004536
  • Betts, A. K. and Beljaars, A. C. M. 2003 ‘ECMWF ISLSCP-II near-surface dataset from ERA-40’. ECMWF ERA-40 Project Report Series, No. 8. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/publications)
  • Betts, A. K., Ball, J. H., Bosilovich, M., Viterbo, P., Zhang, Y. and Rossow, W. B. 2003a Intercomparison of water and energy budgets for five Mississippi sub-basins between ECMWF Reanalysis (ERA-40) and NASA-DAO fvGCM for 1990–99. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D16), 8618, doi: 10.1029/2002JD003127
  • Betts, A. K., Ball, J. H. and Viterbo, P. 2003b Water and energy budgets for the Mackenzie river basins from ERA-40. J. Hydrometeorol., 4, 11941211
  • Betts, A. K., Ball, J. H., Viterbo, P., Dai, A. and Marengo, J. 2005 Hydrometeorology of the Amazon in ERA-40. J. Hydrometeorol., 6, in press
  • Bormann, N., von Bremen, L., Köpken, C., Szyndel, M. and Uppala, S. 2003 ‘Use of reprocessed Meteosat-2 and -3 data in the ERA-40 reanalysis project’. Pp. 604611 in Proceedings of the 2003 EUMETSAT Meteorological Satellite Conference, Weimar, Germany. Available fromwww.eumetsat.de
  • Bormann, N. and Thépaut, J.-N. 2004 Impact of MODIS polar winds in ECMWF's 4D-Var data assimilation system. Mon. Weather Rev., 132, 929940
  • Braesicke, P. and Pyle, J. A. 2004 Sensitivity of dynamics and ozone to different representations of SSTs in the Unified Model. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 130, 20332045
  • Bromwich, D. H. and Fogt, R. L. 2004 Strong trends in skill of the ERA-40 and NCEP/NCAR reanalyses in the high and middle latitudes of the southern hemisphere, 1958–2001. J. Climate, 17, 46034619
  • Bromwich, D. H., Wang, S.-H. and Monaghan, A. J. 2002 ‘ERA-40 representation of the arctic atmospheric moisture budget’. Pp. 287297 in ECMWF ERA-40 Project Report Series, No. 3. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/publications)
  • Caires, S. and Sterl, A. 2003 Validation of ocean wind and wave data using triple collocation. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C3), 3098, doi: 10.1029/2002JC001491
  • 2005a 100-year return value estimates for wind speed and significant wave height from the ERA-40 data. J. Climate, 18, 10321048
  • 2005b A new non-parametric method to correct model data: Application to significant wave height from the ERA-40 reanalysis. J. Atmos. Ocean Technol., 22(4), 443459
  • Caires, S., Sterl, A., Bidlot, J.-R., Graham, N. and Swail, V. 2004 Intercomparison of different wind-wave reanalyses. J. Climate, 17, 18931913
  • Cariolle, D. and Déqué, M. 1986 Southern hemisphere medium-scale waves and total ozone disturbances in a spectral general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res., 91, 1082510846
  • Cau, P., Methve., J. and Hoskins, B. J. 2005 Representation of dry tropical layers and their origins in ERA-40 data. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D06110, doi: 10.1029/2004JD004928
  • Chevallier, F., Bauer, P., Kelly, G., Jakob, C. and McNally, A. 2001 Model clouds over oceans as seen from space: Comparisons with HIRS/2 and MSU radiances. J. Climate, 14, 42164229
  • Chevallier, F., Kelly, G., Simmons, A. J., Uppala, S. and Hernandez, A. 2005 High clouds over oceans in the ECMWF 15-year and 45-year re-analyses. J. Climate, 18, 26472661
  • Côté, J. and Staniforth, A. 1988 A two-time-level semi-Lagrangian semi-implicit integration scheme for spectral models. Mon. Weather Rev., 116, 20032012
  • Courtier, P. and Naughton, M. 1994 A pole problem in the reduced Gaussian grid. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 120, 13891407
  • Crabtree, J. 1959 The travel and diffusion of the radioactive material emitted during the Windscale accident. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 85, 362370
  • Derber, J. C. and Bouttier, F. 1999 A reformulation of the background error covariance in the ECMWF global data assimilation system. Tellus, 51A, 195222
  • Déry, S. J. and Wood, E. F. 2004 Teleconnection between the Arctic Oscillation and Hudson Bay river discharge. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L18205, doi: 10.1029/2004GL020729
  • Dethof, A. and Hólm, E. 2004 Ozone assimilation in the ERA-40 reanalysis project. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 130, 28512872
  • Douglass, A. R., Schoeberl, M. R. and Rood, R. B. 2003 Evaluation of transport in the lower tropical stratosphere in a global chemistry and transport model. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D9), 4259, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002696
  • Douville, H., Mahfouf, J.-F., Saarinen, S. and Viterbo, P. 1998 ‘The ECMWF surface analysis: Diagnostics and prospects’. ECMWF Tech. Memo. No. 258. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/ publications)
  • Douville, H., Viterbo, P., Mahfouf, J.-F. and Beljaars, A. C. M. 2001 Evaluation of the optimum interpolation and nudging techniques for soil moisture analysis using FIFE data. Mon. Weather Rev., 129, 17331756
  • Durre, I., Vos., R. S. and Wuertz, D. B. 2005 Overview of the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive. J. Climate, in press
  • Ebdon, R. A. 1960 Notes on the wind flow at 50 mb in tropical and sub-tropical regions in January 1957 and January 1958. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 86, 540542
  • ECMWF 1985 ‘Proceedings of 1984 seminar/workshop on data assimilation systems and observing system experiments with particular emphasis on FGGE’. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/publications)
  • Fiorino, M. 2004 ‘A multi-decadal daily sea-surface temperature and sea-ice concentration data set for the ERA-40 reanalysis’. ECMWF ERA-40 Project Report Series, No. 12. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/publications)
  • Fisher, M. and Courtier, P. 1995 ‘Estimating the covariance matrices of analysis and forecast error in variational data assimilation’. ECMWF Tech. Memo. No. 220. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/publications)
  • Fritz, S. and Wexler, H. 1960 Cloud pictures from satellite TIROS I. Mon. Weather Rev., 88, 7987
  • Fueglistaler, S., Bonazzola, M., Haynes, P. and Peter, Th. 2005 Stratospheric water vapor predicted from the Lagrangian temperature history of air entering the stratosphere in the tropics. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D08107, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005516
  • Genthon, C. 2002 ‘Climate and surface mass balance of the Polar ice sheets in ERA40/ERA15’. Pp. 299316 in ECMWF ERA-40 Project Report Series, No. 3. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/publications)
  • Genthon, C. and Braun, A. 1995 ECMWF analysis and prediction of the surface climate of Greenland and Antarctica. J. Climate, 8, 23242332
  • Gérard, E. and Saunders, R. W. 1999 Four-dimensional variational assimilation of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager total column water vapour in the ECMWF model. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 125, 30773101
  • Gibson, J. K., Kållberg, P., Uppala, S., Nomura, A., Hernandez, A. and Serrano, E. 1997 ‘ERA Description’. In ECMWF ERA-15 Project Report Series, No. 1. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/ publications)
  • Gregory, D., Morcrette, J.-J., Jakob, C., Beljaars, A. C. M. and Stockdale, T. 2000 Revision of convection, radiation and cloud schemes in the ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 126, 16851710
  • Hagemann, S., Arpe, K. and Bengtsson, L. 2005 ‘Validation of the hydrological cycle of ERA40’. In ECMWF ERA-40 Project Report Series, No. 24. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/ publications)
  • Haimberger, L. 2005 ‘Homogenization of radiosonde temperature time series using ERA-40 analysis feedback information’. In ECMWF ERA-40 Project Report Series, No. 23. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/publications)
  • Harris, B. A. and Kelly, G. A. 2001 A satellite radiance bias correction scheme for data assimilation. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 127, 14531468
  • Hernandez, A., Kell., G. A. and Uppala, S. M. 2004 ‘The TOVS/ATOVS observing system in ERA-40’. ECMWF ERA-40 Project Report Series, No. 16. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/ publications)
  • Hodges, K. I., Hoskins, B. J., Boyle, J. and Thorncroft, C. 2003 A comparison of recent reanalysis datasets using objective feature tracking: storm tracks and tropical easterly waves. Mon. Weather Rev., 131, 20122037
  • Hortal, M. 2002 The development and testing of a new two-time-level semi-Lagrangian scheme (SETTLS) in the ECMWF forecast model. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 128, 16711687
  • Hortal, M. and Simmons, A. J. 1991 Use of reduced Gaussian grids in spectral models. Mon. Weather Rev., 119, 10571074
  • Hoskins, B. J. and Hodges, K. I. 2005 A new perspective on southern hemisphere storm-tracks. J. Clim, 18, in press
  • Houghton, J. T., Meira Filho, L. G., Callander, B. A., Harris, N., Kattenberg, A. and Maskell, K. (Eds.) 1996 ‘Climate change 1995’. In The science of climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK
  • Isaksen, L. and Janssen, P. A. E. M. 2004 Impact of ERS scatterometer winds in ECMWF's assimilation. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 130, 17931814
  • Jakob, C. and Klein, S. A. 2000 A parametrization of the effects of cloud and precipitation overlap for use in general-circulation models. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 126, 25252544
  • Jakob, C., Andersson, A., Beljaars, A., Buizza, R., Fisher, M., Gérard, E., Ghelli, A., Janssen, P., Kelly, G., McNally, A. P., Miller, M., Simmons, A., Teixeira, J. and Viterbo, P. 2000 ‘The IFS cycle CY21r4 made operational in October 1999’. Pp. 29 in ECMWF Newsletter No. 87. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/publications)
  • Janssen, P. A. E. M., Doyle, J. D., Bidlot, J., Hansen, B., Isaksen, L. and Viterbo, P. 2002 Impact and feedback of ocean waves on the atmosphere. Atmosphere–Ocean Interactions, Vol. I. Ed. W. Perrie. Adv. Fluid. Mech., 33, 155197
  • Järvinen, H. and Undén, P. 1997 ‘Observation screening and background quality control in the ECMWF 3D-Var data assimilation system’. ECMWF Tech. Memo. No. 236. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/publications)
  • Julian, P., Lally, V., Kellog, W., Suomi, V., Cote, C., Massman, W. and Lavanon, N. 1977 The TWERL experiment. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 58, 936948
  • Jung, T., Klinker, E. and Uppala, S. 2004 Reanalysis and reforecast of three major European storms of the 20th century using the ECMWF forecasting system. I: Analyses and deterministic forecasts. Meteorol. Appl., 11, 343361
  • 2005 Reanalysis and reforecast of three major European storms of the 20th century using the ECMWF forecasting system. II: Ensemble forecasts. Meteorol. Appl., 12, in press
  • Kållberg, P. 1997 ‘Aspects of the re-analysed climate’. ECMWF ERA-15 Project Report Series, No. 2. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/publications)
  • 2002 ‘An overview of the ERA-40 analyses’. ECMWF ERA-40 Project Report Series, No. 3. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/publications)
  • Kållberg, P., Simmons, A., Uppala, S. and Fuentes, M. 2004 ‘The ERA-40 archive’. ECMWF ERA-40 Project Report Series, No. 17. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/publications)
  • Kållberg, P., Berrisford, P., Hoskins, B., Simmons, A., Uppala, S. and Lamy-Thépaut, S. 2005 ‘Atlas of the atmospheric general circulation’. ECMWF ERA-40 Project Report Series, No. 19. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/publications)
  • Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha, S., White, G., Woollen, J., Zhu, Y., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, K. C., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetmaa, A., Reynolds, R., Jenne, R. and Joseph, D. 1996 The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 77, 437471
  • Kanamitsu, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Woollen, J., Yang, S.-K., Hnilo, J. J., Fiorino, M. and Potter, G. L. 2002 NCEP-DOE AMIP-II reanalysis (R-2). Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 83, 16311643
  • Kistler, R., Kalnay, E., Collins, W., Saha, S., White, G., Woollen, J., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Kanamitsu, M., Kousky, V., van den Dool, H., Jenne, R. and Fiorino, M. 2001 The NCEP–NCAR 50-year reanalysis: Monthly means CD-Rom and documentation. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 82, 247267
  • Köpken, C., Kelly, G. and Thépaut, J.-N. 2004 Assimilation of Meteosat radiance data within the 4D-Var system at ECMWF: Assimilation experiments and forecast impact. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 130, 22772292
  • Li, H., Robock, A., Liu, S., Mo, X. and Viterbo, P. 2005a Evaluation of reanalysis soil moisture simulations using updated Chinese soil moisture observations. J. Hydrometeorol., 6, 180193
  • Li, X., Kelly, G., Uppala, S., Saunders, R. and Gibson, J. K. 2005b ‘The use of VTPR raw radiances in ERA-40’. ECMWF ERA-40 Project Report Series No. 21. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/ publications)
  • McNally, A. P., Andersson, E., Kelly, G. A. and Saunders, R. W. 1999 ‘The use of raw TOVS/ATOVS radiances in the ECMWF 4D-Var assimilation system’. Pp. 27 in ECMWF Newsletter No. 83. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/publications)
  • McNally, A. P., Derber, J. C., Wu, W. and Katz, B. B. 2000 The use of TOVS level-1b radiances in the NCEP SSI analysis system. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 126, 689724
  • McNally, A. P., Watts, P. D., Smith, J. A., Engelen, R., Thépaut, J.-N. and Matricardi, M. 2005 The assimilation of AIRS radiance data at ECMWF. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., in press
  • Mahfouf, J.-F. and Rabier, F. 2000 The ECMWF operational implementation of four-dimensional variational assimilation. II: Experimental results with improved physics. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 126, 11711190
  • Mahfouf, J.-F., Viterbo, P., Douville, H., Beljaars, A. C. M. and Saarinen, S. 2000 ‘A revised land-surface analysis scheme in the Integrated Forecasting System’. Pp. 813 in ECMWF Newsletter No. 88. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/publications)
  • Martin, E. 2004 ‘Validation of alpine snow in ERA-40’. ECMWF ERA-40 Project Report Series, No. 14. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/publications)
  • Morcrette, J.-J., Mlawer, E. J., Iacono, M. J. and Clough, S. A. 2001 ‘Impact of RRTM in the ECMWF forecast system’. Pp. 29 in ECMWF Newsletter No. 91. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/publications)
  • Neumann, C. J. 1993 ‘Global overview’. In Global guide to tropical cyclone forecasting. WMO/TD-No560. Report No. TCP-31. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
  • Oikonomou, E. K. and O'Neill, A. 2005 The evaluation of the ozone and water vapour fields from the ECMWF re-analysis ERA-40 during 1991–99 in comparison with UARS satellite and MOZAIC aircraft observations. J. Geophys. Res., in press
  • Onogi, K. 2000 ‘The long-term performance of the radiosonde observing system to be used in ERA-40’. ECMWF ERA-40 Project Report Series, No. 2. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/publications)
  • Palmer, T. N., Alessandri, A., Andersen, U., Cantelaube, P., Davey, M., Délécluse, P., Déqué, M., Díez, E., Doblas-Reyes, F. J., Feddersen, H., Graham, R., Gualdi, S., Guérémy, J.-F., Hagedorn, R., Hoshen, M., Keenlyside, N., Latif, M., Lazar, A., Maisonnave, E., Marletto, V., Morse, A. P., Orfila, B., Rogel, P., Terres, J. M. and Thomson, M. C. 2004 Development of a European Multi-Model Ensemble System for Seasonal to Inter-Annual Prediction (DEMETER). Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 85, 853872
  • Parrish, D. F. and Derber, J. C. 1992 The National Meteorological Center's spectral statistical-interpolation analysis system. Mon. Weather Rev., 120, 20832108
  • Pick, D. R. and Brownscombe, J. L. 1981 Early results based on the stratospheric channels of TOVS on the TIROS-N series of operational satellites. Adv. Space. Res., 1, 247260
  • Ploshay, J. J., White, R. and Miyakoda, K. 1992 FGGE reanalysis at GFDL. Mon. Weather Rev., 120, 17471763
  • Rabier, F., Järvinen, H., Klinker, E., Mahfouf, J. F. and Simmons, A. J. 2000 The ECMWF operational implementation of four-dimensional variational assimilation. I: Experimental results with simplified physics. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 126, 11431170
  • Ramos Buarque, S., Giordani, H., Caniaux, G. and Planton, S. 2003 Evaluation of the ERA-40 air–sea surface heat flux spin-up. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 37, 295311
  • Randel, W. J., Wu, F., Russell, J. M. III, Roche, A. and Waters, J. W. 1998 Seasonal cycles and QBO variations in stratospheric CH4 and H2O observed in UARS HALOE data. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 163185
  • Randel, W., Udelhofen, P., Fleming, E., Geller, M., Gelman, M., Hamilton, K., Karoly, D., Ortland, D., Pawson, S., Swinbank, R., Wu, F., Baldwin, M., Chanin, M.-L., Keckhut, P., Labitzke, K., Remsberg, E., Simmons, A. and Wu, D. 2004 The SPARC intercomparison of middle atmosphere climatologies. J. Climate, 17, 9861003
  • Rayner, N. A. 2002 ‘HadISST1 and the Reynolds et al. analysis’. Pp. 169176 in ECMWF ERA-40 Project Report Series, No. 3. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/publications)
  • Rayner, N. A., Parker, D. E., Horton, E. B., Folland, C. K., Alexander, L. V., Rowell, D. P., Kent, E. C. and Kaplan, A. 2003 Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4407
  • Reed, R. J. 1962 Evidence of geostrophic motion in the equatorial stratosphere. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 88, 324327
  • Reynolds, R. W., Rayner, N. A., Smith, T. M., Stokes, D. C. and Wang, W. 2002 An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate. J. Climate, 15, 16091625
  • Ringer, M. A. and Allan, R. P. 2004 Evaluating climate model simulations of tropical cloud. Tellus, 56A, 308327
  • Saarinen, S. and Sokka, N. 2002 ‘Merging of the observation sources’. Pp. 7187 in ECMWF ERA-40 Project Report Series, No. 3. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/publications)
  • Santer, B. D., Wigley, T. M. L., Simmons, A. J., Kållberg, P. W., Kelly, G. A., Uppala, S. M., Ammann, C., Boyle, J. S., Brüggemann, W., Doutriaux, C., Fiorino, M., Mears, C., Meehl, G. A., Sausen, R., Taylor, K. E., Washington, W. M., Wehner, M. F. and Wentz, F. J. 2004 Identification of anthropogenic climate change using a second-generation reanalysis. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D21104, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005075
  • Saunders, R. W., Matricardi, M. and Brunel, P. 1999 An improved fast radiative transfer model for assimilation of satellite radiance observations. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 125, 14071425
  • Scherhag, R. 1960 Stratospheric temperature changes and the associated changes in pressure distribution. J. Meteorol., 17, 575582
  • Schoeberl, M. R., Douglass, A. R., Zhu, Z. and Pawson, S. 2003 A comparison of the lower stratospheric age spectra derived from a global circulation model and two data assimilation systems. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D3), doi: 10.1029/2002JD002652
  • Schubert, S., Park, C.-K., Wu, C.-Y., Higgins, W., Kondratyeva, Y., Molod, A., Takacs, L., Seablom, M. and Rood, R. 1995 ‘A multi-year assimilation with the GEOS-1 system: Overview and results’. NASA Tech. Rep. series on global modelling and data assimilation, No. 6. Ed. M. J. Suarez. NASA, Goddard Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA
  • Seneviratne, S. I., Viterbo, P., Lüthi, D. and Schär, C. 2004 Inferring changes in terrestrial water storage using ERA-40 reanalysis data: The Mississippi river basin. J. Climate, 17, 20392057
  • Serreze, M. C. and Etringer, A. J. 2002 ‘Representation of Arctic precipitation in ERA-40’. Pp. 317331 in ECMWF ERA-40 Project Report Series, No. 3. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/publications)
  • Simmons, A. J. 2004 ‘Representation of the stratosphere in ECMWF operations and ERA-40’. Pp. 117 in Proceedings of ECMWF/SPARC workshop on modelling and assimilation for the stratosphere and tropopause, June 2003. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK 1–17 (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/publications)
  • Simmons, A. J. and Burridge D. M. 1981 An energy and angular-momentum conserving vertical finite-difference scheme and hybrid vertical coordinates. Mon. Weather Rev., 109, 758766
  • Simmons, A. J. and Hollingsworth, A. 2002 Some aspects of the improvement in skill of numerical weather prediction. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 128, 647677
  • Simmons, A. J. and Strüfing, R. 1983 Numerical forecasts of stratospheric warming events using a model with a hybrid vertical coordinate. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 109, 81111
  • Simmons, A. J., Untch, A., Jakob, C., Kållberg, P. and Undén, P. 1999 Stratospheric water vapour and tropical tropopause temperatures in ECMWF analyses and multi-year simulations. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 125, 353386
  • Simmons, A. J., Jones, P. D., da Costa Bechtold, V., Beljaars, A. C. M., Kållberg, P. W., Saarinen, S., Uppala, S. M., Viterbo, P. and Wedi, N. 2004 Comparison of trends and low-frequency variability in CRU, ERA-40 and NCEP/NCAR analyses of surface air temperature. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D24115, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005306
  • Simmons, A., Hortal, M., Kelly, G., McNally, A., Untch, A. and Uppala, S. 2005 ECMWF analyses and forecasts of stratospheric winter polar vortex break-up: September 2002 in the southern hemisphere and related events. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 668689
  • Sterl, A. 2004 On the (in)homogeneity of reanalysis products. J. Climate, 17, 38663873
  • Sterl, A. and Caires, S. 2005 Climatology, variability and extrema of ocean waves—The web-based KNMI/ERA-40 Wave Atlas. Int. J. Climatol., 25, 963977
  • Tan, W. W., Geller, M. A., Pawson, S. and da Silva, A. 2004 A case study of excessive subtropical transport in the stratosphere of a data assimilation system. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D11102, doi: 10.1029/2003JD004057
  • Teixeira, J. 1999 ‘The impact of increased boundary layer resolution on the ECMWF forecast system’. ECMWF Tech. Memo. No. 268. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/publications)
  • Temperton, C., Hortal, H. and Simmons, A. J. 2001 A two-time-level semi-Lagrangian global spectral model. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 127, 111128
  • Teweles, S. and Finger, F. G. 1958 An abrupt change in stratospheric circulation beginning in mid-January 1958. Mon. Weather Rev., 86, 2328
  • Trenberth, K. E. and Guillemot, C. J. 1995 Evaluation of the global atmospheric moisture budget as seen from analyses. J. Climate, 8, 22552272
  • Trenberth, K. E. and Olson, J. G. 1988 An evaluation and intercomparison of global analyses from NMC and ECMWF. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 69, 10471057
  • Trenberth, K. E. and Smith, L. 2005 The mass of the atmosphere: A constraint on global analyses. J. Climate, 18, 864875
  • Trenberth, K. E., Stepaniak, D. P., Hurrell, J. W. and Fiorino, M. 2001 Quality of reanalyses in the tropics. J. Climate, 14, 14991510
  • Troccoli, A. and Kållberg, P. 2004 ‘Precipitation correction in the ERA-40 reanalysis’. ECMWF ERA-40 Project Report Series, No. 13. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK 6pp (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/publications)
  • Untch, A. and Hortal, M. 2004 A finite-element scheme for the vertical discretization of the semi-Lagrangian version of the ECMWF forecast model. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 130, 15051530
  • Untch, A. and Simmons, A. J. 1999 ‘Increased stratospheric resolution in the ECMWF forecasting system’. Pp. 28 in ECMWF Newsletter No. 82. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/publications)
  • Uppala, S. 1997 ‘Observing system performance in ERA’. ECMWF ERA-15 Project Report Series, No. 3. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/publications)
  • Uppala, S., Kållberg, P., Hernandez, A., Saarinen, S., Fiorino, M., Li, X., Onogi, K., Sokka, N., Andrae, U. and Da Costa Bechtold, V. 2004 ‘ERA-40: ECMWF's 45-year reanalysis of the global atmosphere and surface conditions 1957–2002’. Pp. 221 in ECMWF Newsletter No. 101. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/publications)
  • van de Berg, L., Gustafsson, J. and Yildirim, A. 2002 ‘Reprocessing of atmospheric motion vectors from Meteosat image data’. Pp. 159168 in ECMWF ERA-40 Project Report Series, No. 15. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/publications)
  • van den Hurk, B. J. J. M., Viterbo, P., Beljaars, A. C. M. and Betts, A. K. 2000 ‘Offline validation of the ERA40 surface scheme’. ECMWF Tech. Memo. No. 295. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/ publications)
  • van Noije, T. P. C., Eskes, H. J., van Weele, M. and van Velthoven, P. F. J. 2004 Implications of the enhanced Brewer–Dobson circulation in ERA-40 for the stratosphere–troposphere exchange of ozone in global chemistry-transport models. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D19308, doi: 10.1029/2004JD004586
  • Viterbo, P. and Betts, A. K. 1999 Impact on ECMWF forecasts of changes to the albedo of the boreal forests in the presence of snow. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 2780327810
  • Viterbo, P., Beljaars, A., Mahfouf, J.-F. and Teixeira, J. 1999 The representation of soil moisture freezing and its impact on the stable boundary layer. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 125, 24012426
  • Wedi, N. P. 1999 ‘The numerical coupling of the physical parametrizations to the ‘dynamical’ equations in a forecast model’. ECMWF Tech. Memo. No. 274. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield, Reading, UK (available fromwww.ecmwf.int/ publications)
  • Wentz, F. J. 1997 A well-calibrated ocean algorithm for SSM/I. J. Geophys. Res., 102(C4), 87038718
  • Wentz, F. J. and Francis, E. A. 1992 ‘Nimbus-7 SMMR Ocean Products, 1979–1984’. Remote Sensing Systems Technical Report 033192. Remote Sensing Systems, 1101 College Avenue, Suite 220, Santa Rosa, CA 95404, USA
  • Wentz, F. J. and Spencer, R. W. 1998 SSM/I rain retrievals within a unified all-weather ocean algorithm. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 16131627
  • Whitaker, J. S., Compo, G. P., Wei, X. and Hamill, T. M. 2004 Reanalysis without radiosondes using ensemble data assimilation. Mon. Weather Rev., 132, 11901200
  • WMO 1985 ‘GARP Special Reports Nos. 42, 43 and 44’. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland