• Gillett, N. P., Graf, H. F. and Osborn, T. J. (2003) Climate change and the North Atlantic Oscillation. In: Hurrell, J. W., Kushnir, Y., Ottersen, G. and Visbeck, M. (Eds) North Atlantic Oscillation: climatic significance and environmental impact, American Geophysical Union, Washington, pp. 193209
  • Hurrell, J. W. (1995) Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation: regional temperatures and precipitation. Science, 269, pp. 676679
  • Hurrell J. W. and van Loon, H. (1997) Decadal variations in climate associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. Clim. Change, 36, pp. 301326
  • Jones, P. D., Jonsson, T. and Wheeler, D. (1997) Extension to the North Atlantic Oscillation using early instrumental pressure observations from Gibraltar and south-west Iceland.Int. J. Climatol., 17, pp.14331450
  • Osborn, T. J. (2004) Simulating the winter North Atlantic Oscillation: the roles of internal variability and greenhouse gas forcing. Clim. Dyn., 22, pp. 605623
  • Osborn, T. J., Briffa, K. R, Tett, S. F. B., Jones, P. D. and Trigo, R. M. (1999a) Evaluation of the North Atlantic Oscillation as simulated by a coupled climate model. Clim. Dyn., 15, pp. 685702
  • Osborn, T. J., Conway, D., Hulme, M., Gregory, J. M. and Jones, P. D. (1999b) Air flow influences on local climate: observed and simulated mean relationships for the United Kingdom. Clim. Res., 13, pp. 173191
  • Scaife, A. A., Knight, J. R., Vallis, G. K. and Folland, C. K. (2005) A stratospheric influence on the winter NAO and North Atlantic surface climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L18715
  • Thompson, D. and Wallace, J. (1998) The Arctic Oscillation signature in the winter-time geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, pp. 12971300
  • van Loon, H. and Rogers, J. C. (1978) The seesaw in winter temperature between Greenland and northern Europe, Part I: general description. Mon. Wea. Rev., 106, pp. 296310
  • Walker, G. (1924) Correlations in seasonal variations of weather IX. Mem. Indian Meteorol Dep., 24, pp. 275332