Phycomycosis infections caused by the fungi Rhizopus and Mucor are commonly termed mucorinycosis. Mucormycosis infections exhibit a rapidly progressive course characterized by angioinvasion and necrosis. The rhinocerebral form has been described thoroughly in the literature. However, there exists another order of Phycomycetes, the Entomophthorales, which rarely cause clinical disease. Their infection is indolent and is associated with grunulomatous inflammation and a protracted clinical course.
Presented here is a rare case of suspected Canidiobolus coronato infection occurring in the maxillofacial region of a previously healthy male. The authors believe this to be the first reported case occurring in the United States. Because of the poorly documented natural history of this infection and the patient's relative intolerance to parenteral antifungal therapy, a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach was designed. It consisted of long-term, low-dosage amphotericin-B, hyperbaric oxygen and sequential surgical debridements.
This unusual disease entity must now be considered in the differential diagnosis of granulomatous disorders of the head and neck.