A number of studies have implicated the gonadal steroids as significant factors in laryngeal development and disease. In addition, antiandrogens are receiving limited trials in the treatment of laryngeal carcinoma. However, there is little experimental data to document the presence, and more specifically the location of receptors for the sex steroid hormones in the larynx. The purpose of this study is to provide such data. Utilizing an autoradiographic technique, tissues from baboons injected with tritiated estradiol (3H-E2) or dihydrotestosterone testosterone (3H-DHT) were examined and analyzed. The data gathered confirmed that the larynx is rich in receptors for these steroids and that there are specific patterns of distribution of receptor positive cells. The vocalis muscle and other mesenchymal tissues contained the largest number of receptors, while ciliated columnar and stratified squamous epithelium were negative. The significance of these findings is discussed.