This paper presents two advances in the evaluation of swallowing function which better define the swallowing processes in the head and neck cancer patient. Videofluoroscopy, improved by computer-assisted image analysis, provides more accurate information regarding oral and pharyngeal movement of structures. Radionuclide scintigraphy, a complementary technique, quantitatesbolus flow (transit times) and the degree of aspiration. Several cases demonstrate the advantages of the methods and their usefulness in evaluating the effects of cancer treatment. The improved techniques also provide opportunity for designing new strategies of medical and surgical rehabilitation.