• 1
    Morris JG Jr, Potter M. Emergence of new pathogens as a function of changes in host susceptibility. Emerg Infect Dis 1997;3:43540.
  • 2
    Adhikari M, Pillay T, Pillay DG. Tuberculosis in the newborn: an emerging disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1997;16:110812.
  • 3
    Lin E, Kotani JG, Lowry SF. Nutritional modulation of immunity and the inflammatory response. Nutrition 1998;14:54550.
  • 4
    Adeiga AA, Akinosho RO, Onyewuche J. Evaluation of immune response in infants with different nutritional status: vaccinated against tuberculosis, measles and poliomyelitis. J Trap Pediatr 1994;40:34550.
  • 5
    Cunningham-RundlesS, ed. Nutrient modulation of immune response. New York : Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1993:556.
  • 6
    Dietz V, Galazka A, van Loon F, Cochi S. Factors affecting the immunogenicity and potency of tetanus toxoid: implications for the elimination of neonatal and non-neonatal tetanus as public health problems. Bull World Health Organ 1997;75:8193.
  • 7
    Hirve S, Ganatra BA. Prospective cohort study on the survival experience of under five children in rural western India. Indian Pediatr 1997;34:9951001.
  • 8
    Rueda R, Maldonado J, Narbona E, Gil A. Neonatal dietary gangliosides. Early Hum Dev 1998;53:S13547.
  • 9
    Cunningham-Rundles S, Cervia JS. Malnutrition and host defense. In: WalkerWA, WatkinsJB, eds. Nutrition in pediatrics: basic science and clinical application, 2nd ed. London : B.C. Dekker, Inc. Hamilton, 1996:295307.
  • 10
    Gopalan C. Malnutrition in childhood in the tropics. BMJ 1967;4:6037.
  • 11
    Prasad AS. Iron deficiency anemia as related to zinc. Minn Med 1966;49:5964.
  • 12
    Hay WW Jr Placental transport of nutrients to the fetus. Horm Res 1994;42:21522.
  • 13
    Rogers I, Emmett P. Diet during pregnancy in a population of pregnant women in South West England. ALSPAC Study Team. Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998; 52: 24650.
  • 14
    Scrimshaw NS, San Giovanni JP. Synergism of nutrition, infection, and immunity: an overview. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66:464S77S.
  • 15
    Leite-De-Moraes MC, Moreau G, Arnould A, et al. IL-4-producing NK T cells are biased towards IFN-gamma production by IL-12. Influence of the micro-environment on the functional capacities of NK T cells. Eur J Immunol 1998; 28: 150715.
  • 16
    Doherty DG, Norris S, Madrigal-Estebas L, et al. The human liver contains multiple populations of NK cells, T cells, and CD3 + CD56+ natural T cells with distinct cytotoxic activities and Th1, Th2, and ThO cytokine secretion patterns. J Immunol 1999;163:231421.
  • 17
    Garcia VE, Uyemura K, Sieling PA, et al. Modlin RL IL-18 promotes type 1 cytokine production from NK cells and T cells in human intracellular infection. J Immunol 1999;162:611421.
  • 18
    Shankar AH, Prasad AS. Zinc and immune function: the biological basis of altered resistance to infection. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68(2 suppl):447S63S.
  • 19
    Frankenburg S, Wang X, Milner Y. Vitamin A inhibits cytokines produced by type 1 lymphocytes in vitro. Cell Immunol 1998;185:7581.
  • 20
    Insoft RM, Sanderson IR, Walker WA. Development of immune function in the intestine and its role in neonatal diseases. Pediatr Clin North Am 1996;43:55171.
  • 21
    Forsthuber T, Yip HC, Lehmann PV. Induction of Th1 and Th2 immunity in neonatal mice. Science 1996;271:172830.
  • 22
    Cunningham-Rundles S, Nessin MC. Bacterial infections in the immunologically compromised host. In: NataroJP, BlaserMJ, Cunningham-RundlesS, eds. Persistent bacterial infections. Washington , DC : American Society of Microbiology Press, 2000: 14564.
  • 23
    Veber MB, Cunningham-Rundles S, Schulman M, et al. Acute shift in immune response to microbial activators in very low birthweight infants. Clin Exp Immunol 1991;83:3915.
  • 24
    Cunningham-Rundles S, Pearson FP. ImuVert activation of natural killer cytotoxicity and interferon gamma production via CD16 triggering. Int J Immu-nopharmacol 1990;12:58998.
  • 25
    Lewis DA, Larsen A, Wilson CB. Reduced interferon gama mRNA levels in human neonates. J Exp Med 1986;163:1018.
  • 26
    Hill MJ. Intestinal flora and endogenous vitamin synthesis. Eur J Cancer Prev 1997;6(suppl 1):S435.
  • 27
    Murry AC, Lewis RD, Amos HE. The effect of microbial phytase in a pearl millet-soybean meal diet on apparent digestibility and retention of nutrients, serum mineral concentration, and bone mineral density of nursery pigs. J Anim Sci 1997;75:128491.
  • 28
    Johansson ML, Nobaek S, Berggren A, et al. Survival of Lactobacillus Plantarum DSM 9843 (299V), and effect on short chain fatty acid content of faeces after ingestion of a rose-hip drink with fermented oats. Int J Food Microbiol 1998;42:2938.
  • 29
    Bengmark S, Jeppsson Gastrointestinal surface protection and mucosa reconditioning. JPEN 1995;19:4105.
  • 30
    Aggarwal R, Naik SR. Prevention of hepatitis B infection: the appropriate strategy for India. Natl Med J India 1994;7:21620.
  • 31
    Cunningham-Rundles S, Ahrn S, Bengmark S, et al. Probiotics and immune response. Am J Gastroen-terol 2000;95 (1 suppl):225.
  • 32
    Baum M, Cassetti L, Bonvehi P, et al. Inadequate dietary intake and altered nutrition status in early HIV-1 infection. Nutrition 1994;10:1620.
  • 33
    Cunningham-Rundles S. Trace elements and minerals in HIV infection and AIDS: implications for host defense. In: BogdanJD, KelvayLM, eds. The clinical nutrition of the essential trace elements and minerals. Totowa , NJ : Humana Press, 2000:33351.
  • 34
    Skurnick JH, Bogden JD, Baker H, et al. Micronu-trient profiles in HIV-1 infected heterosexual adults. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1996;12:7583.
  • 35
    Allavena C, Dousset B, May T, et al. Relationship of trace element, immunological markers, and HIV1 infection progression. Biol Trace Elem Res 1995;47:1338.
  • 36
    Beisel WR. Herman Award Lecture, 1995 infection-induced malnutrition from cholera to cytokines. Am J Clin Nutr 1995:62:8139.
  • 37
    Semba RD, Miotti PG, Chiphangwi JD, et al. Maternal vitamin A deficiency and mother to child transmission of HIV-1. Lancet 1994;343:15936.
  • 38
    Semba RD. Overview of the potential role of vitamin A in mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Acta Paediatr Suppl 1997;421:10712.
  • 39
    West KP Jr, Katz J, Khatry SK, et al. Double blind, cluster randomised trial of low dose supplementation with vitamin A or beta carotene on mortality related to pregnancy in Nepal. The NNIPS-2 Study Group. BMJ 1999; 318: 5705.
  • 40
    Biswas R, Biswas AB, Manna B, et al. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on diarrhoea and acute respiratory tract infection in children. A double blind placebo controlled trial in a Calcutta slum community. Eur J Epidemiol 1994; 10: 5761.
  • 41
    Cunningham-Rundles S, Kim SH, Dnistrian A, et al. Micronutrient and cytokine interaction in congenital pediatric HIV infection. J Nutr 1996;126:2674S9S.
  • 42
    Cunningham-Rundles S, Dnistrian A, Lin D, et al. Vitamin A deficiency in both infected and uninfected children congenitally exposed to HIV. (submitted).
  • 43
    Peters VB, Rosh JR, Mugrditchian L, et al. Growth failure as the first expression of malnutrition in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Mt Sinai J Med 1998;65:14.
  • 44
    Winter H. Gastrointestinal tract function and malnutrition in HIV-infected children. J Nutr 1996;126(10 suppl):2620S2S.
  • 45
    Cunningham-Rundles S, Ahrn R, Abueva-Nuss-baum R, et al. Effect of lactobacillus plantarum 299v supplementation on HIV associated growth abnormalities (in preparation).
  • 46
    Hessle C, Hanson L, Wold AE. Lactobacilli from human gastro-intestinal mucosa are strong stimulators of IL-12 production. Clin Exp Immunol 1999;116:27682.