Triple Trouble: The Role of Malnutrition in Tuberculosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-infection


  • Financial support was received from The National Institutes of Health (HD32247, AI41956, AI45441), the Fogarty International Center, and the United States Agency for International Development (Cooperative Agreement HRN-A-00-97-00015-00).


Worldwide, the number of individuals who are co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis is increasing greatly. The “triple trouble” of HIV and tuberculosis infection and malnutrition may put those infected at greater risk than those with any of the three conditions alone. Further investigation is needed to evaluate the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of nutritional interventions for co-infection with HIV and tuberculosis.