SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References Cited

  • 1
    Deurenberg P, Weststrate JA, Seidell JC. Body mass index as a measure of body fatness: age and sex specific prediction formulas. Br J Nutr. 1991; 65: 105114.
  • 2
    Gallagher D, Visser M, Sepulveda D, Pierson RN Jr, Harris T, Heymsfield SB. How useful is body mass index for comparison of body fatness across age, sex, and ethnic groups. Am J Epidemiol. 1996; 143: 228239.
  • 3
    Wang JZ, Deurenberg P. The validity of predicted body composition in Chinese adults from anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance in comparison with densitometry. Br J Nutr. 1996; 76: 175182.
  • 4
    Luke A, Durazo Arvizu R, Rotimi C, et al. Relation between body mass index and body fat in black population samples from Nigeria, Jamaica, and the United States. Am J Epidemiol. 1997; 145: 620628.
  • 5
    Womersley J, Durnin JVGA. A comparison of the skinfold method with extent of overweight and various weight height relationships in the assessment of obesity. Br J Nutr. 1977; 38: 271284.
  • 6
    Norgan NG. Population differences in body composition in relation to body mass index. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1994; 48: S10S27.
  • 7
    Deurenberg P, Ge K, Hautvast JGAJ, Wang J. Body mass index as predictor for body fat: comparison between Chinese and Dutch adult subjects. Asia Pacific J Clin Nutr. 1997; 6: 102105.
  • 8
    Swinburn B, Craig PL, Daniel R, Dent DPD, Strauss BJG. Body composition differences between Polynesians and Caucasians assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Int J Obes. 1996; 20: 889894.
  • 9
    Guricci S, Hartriyanti Y, Deurenberg P, Hautvast JGAJ. Relationship between body fat and body mass index: differences between Indonesians and Caucasians. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1998; 52: 779783.
  • 10
    Deurenberg P, Yap M, Van Staveren WA. Body mass index and percent body fat: a meta analysis among different ethnic groups. Int J Obes. 1998; 22: 11641171.
  • 11
    Ministry of Health. Health facts 2000, Singapore : Health Info Management, Ministry of Health; 2001.
  • 12
    World Health Organisation. WHO Statistics Annals 1996. Geneva : World Health Organisation; 1998.
  • 13
    World Health Organisation. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report on a WHO Consultation on Obesity. Geneva : WHO; 1997.
  • 14
    Research and Evaluation Department. The Health of Singaporeans. Singapore : Ministry of Health; 1993.
  • 15
    Hughes K. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases in Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore, in comparison with England and Wales, USA and Japan. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 1989; 18: 642645.
  • 16
    Hughes K, Yeo PP, Lun KC, et al. Cardiovascular diseases in Chinese, Malays, and Indians in Singapore. II. Differences in risk factor levels. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1990; 44: 2935.
  • 17
    Hughes K. Trends in mortality from ischaemic heart disease in Singapore, 1959 to 1983. Int J Epidemiol. 1986; 15: 4450.
  • 18
    WHO study group. Diet, nutrition, and the prevention of chronic diseases. Technical Report Series 797. Geneva : WHO; 1990.
  • 19
    Keys A. Seven countries: a multivariate analysis of death and coronary heart disease. Cambridge , MA : Cambridge University Press; 1980.
  • 20
    World Health Organisation. Prevention of coronary heart disease report of a WHO expert committee. Technical Report Series 678. Geneva : WHO; 1982.
  • 21
    Hughes K. Diet and coronary heart disease a review. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 1995; 24: 224229.
  • 22
    Food and Nutrition Department. Food consumption study 1993. Ministry of Health, 1994.
  • 23
    Ministry of Health. National health survey 1998, Singapore. Singapore : Epidemiology and Disease Control Department, Ministry of Health; 1999.
  • 24
    Baumgartner RN, Heymsfield SB, Lichtman SM, Wang J, Pierson RN Jr. Body composition in elderly people: effect of criterion estimates on predictive equations. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991; 53: 13451353.
  • 25
    Deurenberg-Yap M, Schmidt G, van Staveren WA, Deurenberg P. The paradox of low body mass index and high body fat percent among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore. Int J Obes. 2000; 24: 10111017.
  • 26
    Guricci S, Hartriyanti Y, Hautvast JGAJ, Deurenberg P. Relationship between body fat and body mass index: differences between Indonesians and Dutch Caucasians. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1998; 52: 779783.
  • 27
    Gallagher D, Visser M, Sepulveda D, Pierson RN, Harris T, Heymsfield SB. How useful is BMI for comparison of body fatness across age, sex and ethnic groups. Am J Epidemiol. 1996; 143: 228239.
  • 28
    World Health Organisation. Measuring obesity. Classification and description of anthropometric data. Report on a WHO Consultation on the Epidemiology of Obesity. WHO report EUR.ICP/Nut 125. Copenhagen : WHO; 1987.
  • 29
    World Health Organisation. MONICA Manual. Geneva : WHO; 1990.
  • 30
    Deurenberg-Yap M, Chew SK, Lin V, Tan BY, van Staveren WA, Deurenberg P. Relationships between indices of obesity and its co-morbidities among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore. Int J Obes. 2001; 25: 15541562.
  • 31
    World Health Organisation. Hypertension control: report of a WHO expert committee. WHO Technical Report Series 862. Geneva : WHO; 1996.
  • 32
    National Institutes of Health. National Cholesterol Education Program: second report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel II). NIH Publication No. 93–3096. Washington , DC : U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 1993.
  • 33
    World Health Organisation. Community prevention and control of cardiovascular diseases. WHO Technical Report Series 732. Geneva : WHO; 1986.
  • 34
    World Health Organisation. Prevention of diabetes mellitus: report of a WHO study group. WHO Technical Report Series 844. Geneva : WHO; 1994.
  • 35
    Deurenberg-Yap M, Li T, Tan WL, van Staveren WA, Deurenberg P. Validation of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for estimation of intakes of energy, fats and cholesterol among Singaporeans. Asia Pacific J Clin Nutr. 2000; 9: 282288.
  • 36
    Graves KL, McGovern PG, Sprafka M, Folsom AR, Burke GL. Contribution of dietary lipid change to falling serum cholesterol levels between 1980 to 1982 and 1985 to 1987 in an urban population. Ann Epidemiol. 1993; 3: 605613.
  • 37
    WHO study group. Diet, nutrition, and the prevention of chronic diseases. Technical Report Series 797. Geneva : WHO; 1990.
  • 38
    Kromhout D, Menotti A, Bloemberg B, et al. Dietary saturated, trans-fatty acids and cholesterol and 25-year mortality from coronary heart disease: the Seven Countries Study. Prev Med. 1995; 24: 308315.
  • 39
    Department of Nutrition. Report of the National Nutrition Survey 1998. Singapore : Ministry of Health; 2000.
  • 40
    Keys A. Seven countries: a multivariate analysis of death and coronary heart disease. Cambridge , MA : Cambridge University Press; 1980.
  • 41
    Kuulasmaa K, Tunstall-Pedoe H, Dobson A, et al. Estimation of contribution of changes in classic risk factors to trends in coronary-event rates across the WHO MONICA Project populations. Lancet. 2000; 355: 675687.
  • 42
    Kleinbaum DG, Kupper LL, Muller KE, Nizam A. Applied regression analysis and other multivariate methods, 3rd ed. Pacific Grove : Duxbury Press; 1998.
  • 43
    Rose G. Sick individuals and sick populations. Int J Epidemiol. 1985; 14: 3238.
  • 44
    US Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy people 2000: Surgeon General's report on health promotion and disease prevention. Washington , DC : US Public Health Service; 1979.
  • 45
    Hayes KC. Saturated fats and blood lipids: new slant on an old story. Can J Cardiol. 1995; 11: 39G46G.
  • 46
    Kromhout D, Bloemberg BP, Feskens EJ, Hertog MG, Menotti A, Blackburn H. Alcohol, fish, fibre and antioxidant vitamines intake do not explain population differences in coronary heart disease mortality. Int J Epidemiol. 1996; 25: 753759.
  • 47
    Tomaino RM, Decker EA. High fat meals and endothelial function. Nutr Rev. 1998; 56: 334343.
  • 48
    Ginter E. Cardiovascular risk factors in the former communist countries. Analysis of 40 European MONICA populations. Eur J Epidemiol. 1995; 11: 199205.
  • 49
    Thompson LU. Antioxidants and hormone-mediated health benefits of whole grains. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1994; 34: 473497.
  • 50
    Gibson RS. Principles of Nutritional Assessment. New York : Oxford University Press; 1990.
  • 51
    Steering Committee. The Asia-Pacific perspective: redefining obesity and its treatment. Melbourne : International Diabetes Institute; 2000.